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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



^^^.^--^ 



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Journals 
and Journahsm: 

With a Guide for Literary Beginners. 

BY 

JOHN OLDCASTLE. 
1880. 



Second Edition. Price Three Shillings and Sixpence. 



London : 
Field ^ Tuer, y" Leadenhalle Preffe, E.G. 



FIELD S^ TUER 
YE LEADENHALLE PRESSE, E.C. 
T2,S82 






Co Mk lenrp Caglor, as.C.iH.*©., 

Author of Philip Van Artevelde. 

Hearing you speak of the literature and the literary men of the 
last generation — of Wordsworth whom you were one of the earliest to 
recognize, of Southey whom you loved, of Walter Savage Landor, 
and of many more, I have asked myself whether, rising up among us 
now, there are those who can fill their vacant place ; and I have feared 
that the literature of to-day may seem to you less noble and less sound 
than that of a half-century ago. Journalism, a fleeting and sometimes 
flippant phase of letters, has developed since then with a speed which 
almost justifies Lamartine's prediction that our literature will soon 
consist of the daily newspaper alone. And therefore it is that I 
venture, in a volume compiled for the use of literary beginners, to 
invoke a name which will remind them of the dignity and duty of 
their mission. 



91S785 



Preface, 



JOURNALISM, while it affords scope for the 
most brilliant and practised powers, is also the 
legitimate sphere for the literary beginner. His 
capacity is there put to the test by a process which, 
unlike that of publishing a book, costs him nothing 
in case of failure ; while the acceptance of his con- 
tributions is an earnest of his future success. Nearly 
all our great writers, whether journalists or not, 
began by contributing timorously and obscurely to 
the newspaper and periodical press ; and that there 
are thousands of aspirants to-day eager to follow in 



their footsteps and to take a place in the Repubhc of 
Letters, if they only knew how and where to make 
a start, is the conviction which has led to the com- 
pilation of this little book. Nor is it published 
without a hope that among their number may be 
found in embryo the George Salas, the Tom Taylors, 
the Edmund Yates, — perhaps even the Macaulays 
and the George Eliots of the future. 

A first edition of one thousand copies having 
been exhausted in two months, the author has, in 
this second issue, taken advantage of many useful 
hints offered by critics, and has corrected down to 
date the dictionary of the periodical press. 



Contents, 



PREFACE 
LITERARY AMATEURS 

INTRODUCTIONS TO EDITORS 
HOW TO BEGIN 

" DECLINED WITH THANKS " 

POUNDS, SHILLINGS, AND PENCE 

JOURNALISM AS A CAREER 

1. THE FAIR SIDE 

2, THE SEAMY SIDE 
IN AN editor's chair 
A MISCELLANEOUS CHAPTER 
LITERARY COPYRIGHT 

TEN COMMANDMENTS : WITH REASONS AND REMARKS - 
THE amateur's DIRECTORY: BEING A LIST OF JOURNALS 

AND MAGAZINES, WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THEIR 
HISTORY, AN INDICATION OF THEIR SCOPE, AND THE 
ADDRESS OF THEIR OFFICES 
HOW TO CORRECT PROOFS ... 



PAGE 

iii 

9 

13 

19 

27 

37 

53 
66 

73 
87 
97 

lOI 



106 
142 



" If a man can command a table, a chair, pen, ink, and paper, he can 
commence his trade as a literary man. It requires no capital, no special 
education, and may be taken up without a moment's delay." — Anthony 
Trollope. 

"When my first effusion — dropped stealthily one evening at twilight, with 
fear and trembling, in a dark letter-box, in a dark office up a dark court in 
Fleet Street — appeared in the glory of print, I walked down to Westminster 
Hall, and turned into it for half-an-hour, because my eyes were so dimmed 
with joy and pride that they could not bear the street, and were not fit to be 
seen there."— CAar&i Dickens. 



JOURNALS AND JOURNALISM. 



LITERARY AMATEURS. 

MATEURITY generally means immaturity. 
In literature it is a want of that ease, that 
self-possession of style, and that conformity 
to custom which can hardly exist without 
practice, and for the absence of which even 
freshness or impulse of manner makes poor 
amends. A literary aspirant, therefore, in 
forwarding his tentative contributions, 
should never apologetically explain that he is an amateur, for by so 
doing he will hardly fail to prejudice editors against his MSS. 
Let him beware also of the little dilettante habits which, though 
they seem to him attractive refinements, only raise a smile in 
Fleet-street. Such, for instance, is the good note-paper bearing a 
crest in the corner, commonly implying an expenditure impossible 
to the man who writes well enough to write for his bread. The 

A 2 




lo "Journals and Journalism. 

professional journalist " slings ink " on whatever odds and ends of 
paper come in his way ; and the amateur would do well to show 
the same wholesome indifference to the niceties of note-paper, even 
following, if need be, the example of, " paper-sparing Pope," who 
wrote his " Iliad " and " Odyssey " on the backs of letters from his 
friends, among whom were Addison and Steele, those great fathers 
of literary journalism. 

Even more fatally amateurish is the practice, not uncommon 

with beginners, of addressing a more or less gushing note to an 

editor, disclaiming any wish for remuneration, and intimating that 

the honour of appearing in his valuable paper is all the reward 

that is asked. A contribution that is worth printing is worth paying 

for; and to an established paper the trifling sum due for any 

ordinary article is a matter of no consequence whatever — a mere 

drop in the bucket of printing and editorial expenses. In the case of 

a new paper, not backed by much capital, it is different. Gratuitous 

contributions may there be welcome ; but such a paper will hardly 

live ; nor, if it did, would there be much prestige attached to an 

appearance in its pages. Besides, the offer of unremunerated labour 

to an experienced editor will often, and legitimately, be resented. 

He feels that an attempt is being made to bribe him, and, however 

absurd the bribe, the idea is not pleasant. There is, in a word, 

only one fair and sufficient test of capacity in literature as in the 

other arts, and that is the test of competition in the open market. 



Literary Amateurs. 1 1 

Our old friends, supply and demand, expressed by sale and 
purchase, are the only trustworthy umpires in the matter, after all. 

As to the style of amateurs, though we have just spoken of 
freshness as their possible characteristic, the curious fact is that, 
contrary to natural expectation, they generally Avrite more conven- 
tionally than the hacks of journaUsm. The amateur sets himself 
too energetically to keep the trodden ways ; he is too timid to 
allow any originality which he may possess to assert itself; and 
it is only when he is familiar with the necessary laws that he gives 
himself a desirable ease and liberty in non-essentials. The same 
rule holds good with the literary novice as with the amateur actors, 
who, while they break the law which directs them to face their 
audience, are more stagy in deUvery than the third-rate ranter 
of twenty years' experience. 

Finally, let amateurs beware of " amateur magazines," and of 
agencies for the profitable placing of literary work. These are gene- 
rally bubbles — bubbles that will burst as soon as they are pricked 
with a silver or a golden pin. Some years ago an action was 
brought by one of these amateur associations against another ; 
and a number of dreadful young men of nineteen, with long 
hair, and spectacles, appeared in court as plaintiffs and defen- 
dants. No doubt the original promoters of such an organization 
traded to good purpose on the credulity and ambition of the 
provincial and the young, beginning with a profession of philan- 



12 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

thropy, and ending with a request for a subscription. They 
soon had their imitators, however ; the monopoly was broken, 
the spoils divided; and what with the exposure resulting from 
their internal dissensions, and the bitter individual experience 
of the thousands who lent willing ears and purses to their allure- 
ments, we may hope that their occupation is now gone. 



INTRODUCTIONS TO EDITORS. 




HERE is an impression universally prevalent 
among beginners that to be introduced 
personally or by letter to an editor is one of 
the essentials of a literary debut^ albeit the 
only introduction which really avails is 
good and marketable work. It is difficult 
to convince them of the fact that recom- 
mendation will not do a great deal for 
them, or that they can possibly receive justice without it. " A 
good word from a trustworthy source will induce the editors to read 
my things," says the amateur invariably ; " as it is, I am certain 
they do not read them." The unpalatable fact is, however, that 
when a MS. is not read, the reason in eight cases out of ten is that 
the editorial eye, which is as practised in gauging at a glance the 
quality of literary work as is the eye of an art collector in deter- 
mining instantly the approximate value of a picture, has summarily 
given a decision adverse to the offered contribution. Good things 
are too well worth having to be carelessly foregone. Of course 
there are exceptions. Press of time, press of matter, or kindred 



14 'Journals and Journalism. 

reasons, may cause a contribution to be overlooked ; but in such 
cases a letter of introduction hardly mends matters. A familiar 
source of trouble to authors and professional journalists would once 
for all be stopped if beginners would frankly enter the field in the 
way of business, sans phrases. Of course there are cases in which 
a word from a common acquaintance may be of use to an unknown 
writer who sends to a journal an article which might possibly be a 
hoax; for a note of introduction is, if nothing else, a valuable guaran- 
tee of good faith. Also a letter from one journalist to a7iother^ 
vouching for the tried capacity of a person introduced, is, it is 
scarcely necessary to say, very useful and very convenient ; it may 
save the. time and trouble which would otherwise be spent on 
reading his MSS., and all editors are glad to escape at once 
to the plain-sailing of print ; for, as Charles Lamb found, every- 
thing reads " raw " in MS. The printed copy will not necessarily 
be accepted, of course, but it will stand a better chance in that 
condition. Such an introduction as this, however, is hardly 
likely to fall to the lot of the beginner for whose behoof we are 
writing, and whom we wish to warn against counting on any kind 
of personal favour from an editor through common acquaintances 
or otherwise. 

Still more futile than suing outsiders for recommendations is 
the somewhat kindred practice of appealing to the editor himself 
in forma pauperis^ and for personal motives, for a place upon his 



Introductions to 'Editors. 15 

staff. Charles Dickens, speaking from a full heart, somewhere 
mentions the "profoundly unreasonable grounds on which an 
editor is often urged to accept unsuitable articles — such as having 
been at school with the writer's husband'^ brother-in-law, or having 
lent an alpenstock in Switzerland to the writer's wife's nephew, 
when that interesting stranger had broken his own." Thackeray 
resigned the editorship of the Cornhill (his pet magazine, set 
on foot at a time when monthlies of its class were few) on 
account of the pain he endured from the inevitable necessity of 
rejecting appeals, not less unreasonable and far more pitiful 
than the fantastic pleas caricatured by Dickens. Pathetic letters 
from educated young women, on whose painful exertions as 
teachers, and even as sempstresses, a paralyzed father or a brood 
of helpless younger children depended, timid supplications from 
men whose spirit was broken by failure in every direction — 
such were among the "thorns," as he called them, which the 
tender-hearted humourist found in the editorial pillow. Unfortun- 
ately, angelic filial or sisterly devotion is not inconsistent with 
the feeblest literary powers ; nevertheless, the editor, hoping 
against hope, was wont to look eagerly through the poor little 
paper, in case, by some untoward chance, it might be just possible 
to print it — but almost always with the same negative result.* It 

* Mr. Thackeray tells us thus much, but he does not add that he frequently 
sent out of his own pocket a five-pound note in payment for the contributions 



1 6 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

is difficult for distress to be very logical, but it is also difficult to 
enter into the state of mind of a poor girl who thinks that her 
MSS. ought to be printed because she is good, self-denying, unfor- 
tunate and overworked, and not at all because they deserve it. 

This sort of personal appeal is essentially feminine. So is the 
occasional trick of addressing contributions to the editor's private 
house instead of to the office of his paper. Few women are con- 
tent to be numbered in a class ; they will not submit to be 
generalized ; they find some good reason why their own case 
is peculiar and particular ; hence they pursue an editor to his 
home in the hope of getting his private ear, and by so doing 
irretrievably damage such chance of success as they might other- 
wise have. Those women (and they are not a few) who have 
made a worthy position in periodical literature, have done so by 

ridding themselves of all such 

/^ y ^ *y >— ■ feminine amateurity as this. Har- 

J? . S/^/UCA ^^:^^^uy^^ j.jgj Martineau, Mrs. Lynn Linton, 

Mrs. Cashel Hoey, these are 



which he could neither publish nor conscientiously charge to his employers. 
The kind-hearted editor, whose "cynicism," by the way, is the stock 
charge against his character, put the impracticable MSS. away in a drawer 
devoted to matter destined for possible future use, where they were of course 
forgotten. 




■Introductions to Editors. 17 

names with which no such petti- 
fogging devices are associated. ^:^^^^^t^e^,^it^< 
And the story of Adelaide Anne 
Procter's connection with House- 
hold Words illustrates our point. This is how it is told by Charles 
Dickens :— " In the spring of the year 1853, I observed, as con- 
ductor of Household Words, a short poem among the proffered con- 
tributions, very different, as. I thought, from the shoal of verses per- 
petually setting through the office of such a periodical, and possessing 
much more merit. Its authoress was quite unknown to me. She 
was one Miss Mary Berwick, whom I ha.d never heard of; and she 
was to be addressed by letter, if addressed at all, at a circulating 
library in the western district of London. Through this channel 
Miss Berwick was informed that her poem was accepted, and was 
invited to send another. She complied, and became a regular 
and frequent contributor. Many letters passed between the journal 
and Miss Berwick, but Miss Berwick herself was never seen. . . . 
This went on until December, 1854, when the Christmas Number, 
entitled The Seven Poor Travellers, was sent to press. Happen- 
ing to be going to dine that day with an old and dear friend, 
distinguished in literature as ' Barry Cornwall, ' I took with me 
an early proof of that number, and remarked, as I laid it on the 
drawing-room table, that it contained a very pretty poem, written 
by a certain Miss Berwick. Next day brought me the disclosure 



I 8 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

that I had so spoken of the poem to the mother of its writer, in its 
writer's presence ; that I had no such correspondent in existence 
as Miss Berwick ; and that the name had been assumed by ' Barry 
Cornwall's ' eldest daughter, Miss Adelaide Anne Procter. This 
anecdote," continues Mr. Dickens, "strikingly illustrates the 
honesty, independence, and quiet dignity of the lady's character. 
I had known her when she was very young ; I had been honoured 
with her father's friendship when I was myself a young aspirant ; 
and she had said at home, 'If I send him in my own name verses 
that he does not honestly like, either it will be very painful to 
him to return them, or he will print them for papa's sake, and not 
for their own.' " 

We do not say, then, that an introduction based on its writer's 
knowledge of the bearer's personal worth is never to be used — ■ 
only that it will not avail unless along with the personal worth 
there is also professional skill. Nor is there any objection to a 
practice of addressing " copy " to an editor by name ; for he may 
take as a compliment, to be rewarded perhaps by a careful con- 
sideration of the MS., this recognition of his individuality — a 
recognition which is not an offensively intrusive one. But we do 
warn all beginners against attempts to bring personal influence up 
the editorial back-stairs, instead of taking their chance fairly and 
frankly with the great army of unknown volunteers. 



HOW TO BEGIN. 




HE main difficulty in journalism, as in so 
many of the affairs of life, is the start. 
The very uncertainty of the final accept- 
ance and success of contributions doubly 
disinclines the unenterprising man for the 
effort — often a supreme effort — of com- 
position. Many great writers have put off 
unsheathing the pen as long as they could 
possibly afford to be idle. If Thackeray had not lost in two years 
the fortune he inherited when he came of age, he would probably 
not have become first a contributor to the press, and then the author 
of "Vanity Fair " ; nor did the stimulus of success ever conquer his 
incurable dislike for steady work. A practised journalist will often 
confess to an utter incapacity to produce copy except under pressure 
of necessity. If he has a week for his task, he makes no progress 
until the last days. If he has a day for it, the m.orning and 
afternoon go, and though he sits over his paper and ink, nothing 
is done ; but at night, when the minutes left to him for the fulfil- 
ment of his engagement are precious, he gets into full swing, and 



20, journals and 'Journalism. 

writes both rapidly and well. In short, the knowledge that the 
printers are waiting for his copy is not uncommonly the only 
source of the journalist's inspiration. Mere dislike, then, for the 
mental and manual labour in the production of copy need not be 
taken by the literary beginner to belie his aspirations, and will 
not necessarily interfere with his final success. 

But obviously it is well to lessen this reluctance as far as possible. 
And this can often be done by observing a rule which, on other 
grounds, must be always before the eyes of the novice, viz., to 
be himself in all he writes. Longfellow's advice to the sculptor, 

*' That is best which lieth nearest ; 
Shape from that thy work of art," 

is equally applicable to him. Individuality, where it is not 
eccentric, ill-timed, or out of taste, is a precious quality in an 
author. Of course he must not ride his veriest hobbies (though 
they are better than commonplaces) ; but without going to ex- 
tremes he ought to show in all that he writes that he ^vrites it ; 
and thus he will rouse the double interest of the work and of its 
author in his readers. Of course, reporting in one form and 
another is a leading feature of journalism, and is an art in itself; 
and in ordinary reporting — not in special reporting, such as some of 
Mr. Sala's, where no one would wish to forego the touches he gives 
us of himself— it is well to lose sight of the reporters. By them. 



How to begin. 21 

indeed, impersonality must be cultivated as carefully as it ought to 
be avoided by those whose work is of a less conventional order. 

Supposing that a beginner has followed us thus far in what we 
have written, has studied and kept the commandments which are 
appended at the end of the book, has actually taken up his pen, and 
written something because he feels it and wants to say it ; the next 
step, now to be considered, is to forward the MS. to a publication into 
the scope of which it comes, with or without an introduction, and 
with or without an accompanying explanatory letter, subject to the 
necessities of the case, and in accordance with the hints thrown 
out in a past chapter. Presumably every young aspirant has his 
favourite newspaper, and his pet magazine ; and on the model of 
the writings that appear in these, he is almost sure at the outset, 
unless he have rare originality, to mould his own. Two other 
things are almost equally certain: that he will send his first-fruits to 
the editor whose pages have indirectly produced them; and 
secondly, that these first-fruits will have the blemishes which always 
mark imitative art, and be condemned accordingly. If under 
these circumstances the young author, in the bitterness of his 
disappointment, tear up the MS. which has been courteously re- 
turned to him, no great harm will be done. The destroying stage 
is one through which all must pass, even the greatest; indeed, great 
authors often regret they have not burned more than they did, as 
may be seen from the efforts of Tennyson and Mrs. Browning to 



22 'Journals and yournalism. 

suppress poems published even after they were out of their teens ; 
while Macaulay in his full maturity could not find a market for 
everything he wrote, and there are MSS. of his, according to a 
recent article in Belgravia, which still remain unpublished, and 
which have been spared the flames to no other purpose than to 
show that even a Titan's pen is sometimes wielded in vain. 

But if the young author is tender about his first tentative 
writing, and feels that it would be sweet to see it in print, even 
though "there's nothing in 't," let him venture it again, in perhaps 
a less ambitious quarter than before. For, above all things, let 
him never be ashamed of humble beginnings. The most unpre- 
tentious papers — even some of the cheap organs, not supposed to 
be read by cultivated people — have been the nurseries of fair con- 
temporary reputations among novelists. The literary annals of 
the past abound with instances of the obscure commencement of 
a literary career of distinction. Nearly half-a-century has elapsed 
since Dickens's first effusion was "dropped stealthily, with fear and 
trembling, into a dark letter-box, in a dark office, up a court in 
Fleet Street ;" and when it appeared "in all the glory of print," 
his sensation of pleasure was the only remuneration he expected 
or got. " On that occasion," he says, " I walked down to 
Westminster Hall, and turned into it for half-an-hour, because 
my eyes were so dimmed with joy and pride that they could 
not bear the street, and were not fit to be seen there." Other 



How to begin. 23 

and more substantial recompense he had none ; and before he 

broke his connection with the Old Monthly Magazine, he 

modestly wrote to the editor intimating that, as he had hitherto 

sent all his contributions gratuitously, he would now be glad if 

the " sketches " were thought worthy of any small remuneration, 

otherwise he would be obliged to discontinue them, as he was 

going to get married, and thus incur additional domestic expense. 

Thackeray's first literary work is 

lost in the forgotten pages of the A yVp //X> "^ 

Constitutional John Ruskin's ' V ^ "^^VaVjPOJ^>v^^ 

first editor was — a clerk in the 

Crown Life Office ! in whose Friendships Offering the great art 

critic wrote verses at fifteen. 

The distinguished author of >^ /^ ' ^ 

Self-Help made his maiden ^'^-,f^/y ^^^Jt-t^t-^i^J^ 

pearance in the Edinburgh Weekly ^-^ ^ 

Chronicle (now dead), and had, a little later, very practical 

journalistic experience as editor of the Leeds Times. Hepworth 

Dixon began a literary career of 

great profit and some honour, by / \ /) ^ {\ ^ ' /n^^ 

contributions to the obscure local Wi ^ W^^jJ^JJtw^^^ 

press, indited from the desk 

of a merchant's office ; and he subsequently served a hard 

apprenticeship to letters as editor of a Cheltenham paper. There 

are hundreds of similar cases among living writers. 



24 'Journals and yournalism. 

All this should impress on the beginner that he must be 
humble at the outset. And with this humility, there must also 
be great diligence. Manuscripts must be sent from editor to 
editor; if they are refused by one, they will sometimes be 
accepted by another. Persistence is the secret of success ; it is 
wearying work, no doubt ; but how often crowned with triumph 
will be shown in the chapter entitled " Declined with Thanks." 
If all refuse them, fresh MSS. must be put in circulation, one 
after another in succession, until some have found a satisfactory 
destination, and these latter will probably help the others to 
obtain one too. This is a common way of getting a footing 
in periodical literature, and one which we have heard perhaps 
the most experienced editor in London recommend to young 
men who came to him for counsel. Another way is to take 
an inferior post on the literary staff of a daily paper, turning 
the hand to all the odds and ends of sub-editing and general 
reporting, and thus gradually qualifying for a more responsible 
position. Another and most inviting entrance into the republic of 
letters is that of short-hand reporting. This offers the advantage 
of a certain income, the enjoyment of which gives a man opportu- 
nity to turn round and see what his literary capacity is ; and if that 
capacity stand him in good stead, he can combine its exercise with 
his duties in the gallery of the House of Commons, or wherever 
they may be ; if it do not, he has a staff to lean on that is not 



How to begin. 25 

only a walking-stick, but a crutch. Charles Dickens, as every- 
one knows, began life as a re- 
porter. So did Justin Mc 

Carthy, M.P. ; and so did many AMlS. J^^^ a/i^^^^ 

others who now fill prominent 

journalistic places. The boy, therefore, who desires to embrace 
the literary calling, can prepare himself for it as soon as he is 
in his teens, by learning stenography ; and when the time comes 
for him to make a serious choice of a profession, he will find that 
the conventionally interposing parent, who, having the vision of 
Chatterton's suicide and Johnson's poverty always before him, 
would not allow his son to trust to literature as a means of 
subsistence, will offer no objection to his practising reporting — a 
lucrative and steady career. And once in communication with the 
world of editors and journalists, the young short-hand writer will 
soon feel his way to whatever he is fit for in literary labour. Again, 
a few beginners have first accepted posts in the commercial 
department of a newspaper office, and, having come so near 
to the editorial sanctum, at last enter it, reUnquishing their 
mechanical work as they are able to get other that is more to 
their minds. This preliminary desk-work is drudgery, no doubt, 
just as it was in a la^vyer's office to young Disraeli and to 
Lever ; so also is reporting ; but those who undertake these 
duties often do so to meet manfully and legitimately the natural 

B 



26 'Journals and Journalism. 

wishes of parents, who, as old Isaac DisraeH says, see in the 
son who opposes them in the choice of a calling, and whom 
posterity may recognize as a genius, only the wilful and rebellious 
child. And, indeed, by the endurance of this drudgery young 
aspirants show of what metal they are made, and prove that 
they have confidence in themselves and in their true vocation — a 
confidence which, when it has stood so practical a test, rarely 
turns out to be misplaced. Other employments than those 
which we have named, connected with the production of a 
journal, may sometimes be the preparatory stages of a hterary 
career, but are not of a nature that would lead us to recommend 
their adoption to that end. The "reader," who cudgels his 
brains over the " proofs " of what others have written, occasionally 
begins to write himself Even the printer has been known to 
make his way into the editor's or author's chair, and to fill it 
with credit — seldomer, perhaps, in England, where Douglas 
Jerrold was among the number, than in America, where Franklin, 
Horace Greeley, Bennett, Bret Harte, and Artemus Ward, with 
many others only less renowned, once stood at the compositor's 
case. 



DECLINED WITH THANKS. 




O consolations that we can here offer will 
be able to mitigate the sting of a first — 
or, indeed, of a second or of a third — re- 
ception of this courteous but inexorable 
form of refusal. It is not until after one 
or two acceptances of MS. that a rejection 
becomes in any degree tolerable. When 
the acceptances outnumber the rejections, 
indeed, " Declined with thanks " will generally cease to cause a 
serious pang. At that happy time, too, it will matter little to an 
author whether his refusal come to him in these laconic words, or 
in the longer forms which are designed to save his sensitiveness 
by a vague suggestion of some rather unusual reason for the 
return of good work. But to the novice the form really makes 
some difference ; to hear that his copy is " not suitable " for the 
pages of this or that paper gives him the comforting reflection 
that he has in some way failed to hit the editor's individual taste, 
or that his subject is considered to be one that could be more 
appropriately treated elsewhere. Still more gently is he soothed 



2 8 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

if his pill come to him gilded with an intimation that an unusual 
press of matter has prevented the appearance in print of his con- 
tribution. The following note illustrates this more tender editorial 
mood : — 

" The editor of the Contemporary Review is much obliged by 

Mr. 's offer of his paper. It is too able an article not to 

have been read with interest, but the editor regrets to say that it 
is quite impracticable to find room for the topic. In reforwarding 
the MS. ^ by this book-post, the editor begs to add his best 
thanks." 

If the author accepts such little comforts resignedly, so much 
the better. But so much the worse — very much indeed the worse 
— if, being of a too persevering or persistent disposition, he should 
argue the point with the well-meaning editor. Let him at all events 
accept as final a refusal for which he may find any reason that 
consoles him most ; to dispute the justice of the verdict, or even 
to offer to alter, tone down, or improve the MS. with a view to 
obtaining a more favourable resolution, is only to involve a busy 
editor in an irritating waste of time, and to gradually discourage 
the use of polite forms and, indeed, the return of rejected MSS. 
at all. An unsuccessful author is really to be pitied if the work 
of some months of thought and some days or weeks of laborious 
penmanship finds its ignominious way into the editorial waste- 
paper basket — a fate which, to the great credit of editors generally, 



Declined with thanks. 29 

very rarely befalls it, and this in spite of the dismal warnings 
which are printed at the beginning or end of most periodicals to 
the effect that unsuitable MSS. will never be returned. In view 
of such ill-iortune at any time occurring to him, the beginner would 
do well, in the case of serious and laborious work, to make 
duplicates of his compositions by means of one or other of the 
cheap and easily-worked contrivances for multiplying impressions ; 
unless, indeed, as is likely to be the case, he has rough drafts, scored 
with corrections, of the finally-approved MS. ready at hand to 
work upon again. The more there are of these rough drafts the 
better will it be, and the less likely that the writer will need to go 
to them again ; for well has it been said — and this must be im- 
pressed on the amateur's mind— that "the men who have the 
fewest MSS. returned are the men who have taken the greatest 
pains with their work." Macau- 

layandCardinalNewman penned J?^^^;^y^^^^^^^^^,^_^^^^ 
many of their pages twice, thrice, (, 

and oftener; George Henry 

Lewes, after having an article returned from the Editiburgh^ thence- 
forth re-wrote everything before submitting it to a magazine ; 
while in journalism Mr. Albany Fonblanque, we are told by 
his nephew, Mr. Edward Barrington de Fonblanque, "fre- 
quently wrote an article ten times over before it contented him, 
and even then he very rarely read it after publication without 



3© journals and 'Journalism. 

wishing to re-write it." When, indeed, such articles as these, or 
when poems and stories, which after a few weeks or months of 
reflection do not appear to be immature to the authors themselves, 
are returned, let them not be committed to the flames. At some 
future date they will serve the writer's purpose ; especially if in 
the meantime he has made a success by some other effort. 
Thackeray's earlier compositions, both in prose and verse, which 
either " the leading magazines had all refused to print " or the 
public had refused to read, were all blazoned years afterwards 
in the pages of the Cornhill; Nathaniel Hawthorne had a similar 
experience in the new world ; and we have heard the editor who, 
if we remember right, introduced " East Lynne " to the world, 
say that Mrs. Henry Wood had at the time of that first success a 
drawer full of tales which had been " returned with thanks " from 
all directions, but which were afterwards printed, handsomely paid 
for, and duly admired. Of course these are exceptional cases ; and 
it will be better and wiser, as a rule, for the beginner to allow the 
fugitive literary attempts, of which he himself may feel somewhat 
uncertain, to take their chance, sink or swim, survive or die, as 
fortune may immediately decide. 

Stinging and discouraging and incapacitating as a "Declined with 
thanks " may seem to the novice who for the first time tears open 
the heartless packet which discloses to him the characters of his 
own familiar hand, there is a solid and abundant consolation for 



Declined with thanks. 31 

him — as regards his hopes of ultimate success, at least — in the 
long roll of precedent. The failures of men destined to be great 
do not date from yesterday. Editors and publishers have declined 
with thanks — and without them — the masterpieces of the world. 
The ill-fortune of " Paradise Lost " is almost too hackneyed an 
example to quote ; but perhaps everyone does not know, or does 
not remember, that "Robinson Crusoe," which, were it ever by 
possibility out of print, would be a European loss, went begging 
through the circle of English publishers, until one, more specula- 
tive but generally considered less discriminating than the rest, 
consented to print the immortal book and to pocket a thousand 
guineas at once by his venture. It is scarcely necessary to say 
that " Robinson Crusoe " is one of the staple sources of profit to 
a thousand publishers, and holds its own in spite of the innumer- 
able desert islands which have studded the oceans of juvenile 
fiction since the first appeared. And this almost unanimous 
refusal encountered Defoe's attempt, not when he was young and 
unknown, but after the estabHshment of his repute as a writer. 
And to come to later examples, everyone knows how the author 
of " Jane Eyre " wrote a novel in friendly competition with her 
two sisters (the story is admirably told by Charlotte Bronte herself 
in the pathetic introduction she wrote for an edition of Emily 
Bronte's Wutherhig Heights)^ and how it went a weary round of 
publishers, declined with thanks by each alike, but every time 



32 'Journals and Journalism. 

courageously despatched on its travels again by the indomitable 
little Yorkshire governess until the signs (frankly unconcealed) of 
so many rejections awoke some kindly interest, on the part 
of Messrs. Smith and Elder's critic, in the battered MS. and 
its persistent author. Thackeray, Charlotte Bronte's con- 
temporary and friend, failed, and failed repeatedly, not only at 
drawing, which he did badly, but at writing, which he did 
eminently well, for his contributions, as we have already said, 
were at first refused by all the leading magazines. Carlyle, 

after being " edited " out of all 

^^ f If recognition in the Edinburgh 

I % ^^-'Gy'^ A-A-' Review^ was finally rejected 

as a contributor altogether. 
Mr. Kinglake's " Eothen," though composed with thought, and 
the work of years, scrupulously revised, and, in fact, fulfilling 
the Horatian maxim of delay, was utterly, unconditionally, 
and irrevocably rejected by every publisher to whom the author 
offered it. At last he found one who would consent to accept 
the precious and classic little work as a present, judging 
it just worthy of printer's ink and paper. Nor did " Eothen," 
after this disheartening beginning, instantaneously burst into 
popularity like " Robinson Crusoe." At first it seemed that the 
publishers were right, and that it would remain a failure to the 
end ; but the event has brought a very different verdict. Anthony 



Declined with thanks. 33 

Trollope, in his middle . age the most read, as he is perhaps the 
most readable, of novelists, was fain in early life to taste the bitter- 
ness of rejection not once or twice; the judicious, easy, and always 
refined pen which has now a fortune at command, gained an 
income of ;^i2 5s. 7|d. in one of the first years of its labours, 
and of ;^20 2s. 6d. in another. Hepworth Dixon experienced no 
small difficulty in finding a publisher for his *' Memoir of Howard," 
which, when it was at last issued, went through three editions 
within a year. The great American historian. Motley, had his 
" Dutch Republic " returned with thanks ; a similar fate befell 
Carlyle's " French Revolution ; " and Lingard's history, which 
every year commands more attention and esteem, also shared the 
doom of refusal. Lord Brougham was rejected; Jeffrey, the 
rejector, was rejected ; George Eliot herself is said to have been 
rejected until she found a mascuhne advocate in George Henry 
Lewes ; but George Henry Lewes was rejected ! Indeed, it is 
easier to say who has not, than who has, undergone that blank 
moment of chilled and disappointed hope — our readers' experience 
of which will, we trust, be limited. 

And to this end, let it be alwiiys remembered that the tact 
which produces viarketabh work is sometimes more useful than the 
talent which produces good work. Unhappily, the two things are 
not always identical. A composition of real power and originality 
may in fact, and not merely in the terms of editorial courtesy, be 

B 2 



34 Journals and Journalism, 

unsaleable because it is unjournalistic in manner or inopportune 
to the time. This fact should not fail to soften disappointments. 
And furthermore, if a rejected beginner should be tempted 
to indulge the frame of mind most fatal to all his chances of 
success — a conviction of personal injury — he should restore a 
healthy tone to his mind by believing, what is tl^ truth, that 
editors are kind, through a fellow-feeling and a remembrance of 
their own apprenticeship ; and just, through a fair consideration of 
self-interest. Let him reflect for a moment on the number of 
newspapers, reviews, and magazines which are produced daily, 
weekly, and monthly in England, and on the number of pens at 
work upon only one issue of one of these, and he will easily 
perceive that the competition for securing good contributions is 
very keen and very busy. " Returned with thanks," is not likely 
to be written without a reason. When, therefore, publishers and 
editors have fallen into real mistakes, as in the famous instances 
we have cited, allowance must simply be made for their fallibility 
as men who have to gauge the taste of a whimsical and often 
irrational public, and who sometimes gauge it wrong. No one 
could foretell with certainty that " Jane Eyre " would take the 
country as it did ; and in Thackeray's case it was no editorial 
caprice which condemned him to a period of obscurity, for the 
public at first altogether failed to taste the peculiar flavour of his 
genius, thus in a manner justifying the rejection : for an editor's 



Declined with thanks. 35 

office is not to defy, but half to guide and half to wait upon, the 
public. " So your poor Titraarsh has made another fiasco," 
wrote Thackeray, when a little volume of his failed. " How are 
we to take this great stupid public by the ears ? Never mind ; I 
think I have something which will surprise them yet." The 
"something" proved to be "Vanity Fair;" and the "great stupid 
public " whose good word he was too wise to underrate even 
while he smiled at its slowness, awoke to the full knowledge of 
one more great author, and will never forget him. 

But what we have said would fail of half its purpose were it 
only to offer a balm to the wounds of the young author whose 
MS. has been returned or silently consigned to the editorial 
waste-paper basket. It is also intended to inculcate industry, 
perseverance, and a courage that does not flag because the first 
effort, or the fifth, is a failure. " We should certainly shrink," says 
the Saturday Review, cynical in the consciousness that it possesses 
an adequate staff of its own, " from the responsibility of recom- 
mending perseverance to the writers of rejected MSS. ; but," 
and this is the part of the paragraph which it is to our point to 
quote here, " we cannot deny that unflinching perseverance 
sometimes succeeds at last." Instead of " sometimes " we should 
be inclined to use a more encouraging word, because we are 
convinced that among the aspirants for literary honours the 
minority, and not the majority, are incapable. Of course, worth- 



36 'Journals and Journalism. 

less writing will gain nothing by the persistence of the writer ; but 
the best authors our literature has known would, without persis- 
tence, have failed to obtain for their genius that recognition which 
is its very life. 



POUNDS, SHILLINGS, AND PENCE. 



ri) 




GOOD deal has happened since Charles 
Lamb wrote paragraphs for sixpence 
apiece in the Morni?ig Post ; though it 
must not be forgotten that the age of 
pence has given place to an age of 
shillings, not only in literature, but in 
everything else ; and the paragraphists of 
to-day's Pall Mall, who get about sixpence 
for a single line, spend that sixpence with an ease to which, fifty 
years ago, they would have been strangers. Bearing this in mind, the 
case of Southey may be taken as typical, not so much of the active 
journalist as of the reviewer and essayist, both of that and of this 
day ; and it is not a comfortable one to contemplate. " Prose," 
writes Sir Henry Taylor of his friend, " having been almost the 
only resource of one who was at once an eminent poet, and in 
general literature the most distinguished writer of his age (Mr. 
Southey), his example may be fairly adduced as showing what can 
be made of it under the most favourable circumstances. By a 
small pension and the office of Laureate (yielding together 



38 yournals and 'Journalism. 

about ;^2oo per annum) he was enabled to insure his life to make 
a moderate posthumous provision for his family ; and it remained 
for him to support himself and them, so long as he should live, 
by his writings. With unrivalled industry, infinite stores of know- 
ledge, extraordinary talents, a delightful style, and the devotion of 
about one-half of his time to writing what should be marketable 
rather than what he would have desired to write, he defrayed the 
cost of that frugal and homely way of life which he deemed to be 
the happiest and the best. But at sixty years of age he had never 
yet had one year's income in advance, and when between sixty and 
seventy His powers of writing failed, had it not been for the timely 
grant of an additional pension his means of subsistence would 
have failed too." We have spoken of this as a typical case, yet it 
is hardly so except in its disheartening pecuniary results, for in its 
conditions it was made more than typically favourable by Southey's 
ability, his pension, his connexions, and his quite enormous 
industry. In saying that these results represent literary rewards, 
not only in that day, but in our own, we make a statement to 
which Mr. James Payn — who recently contributed to the Nineteenth 
Century a bright article which, if he will permit us to say so, 
never allows us to forget that its author is a writer of romance — 
will doubtless demur. " Poor Paterfamilias," he says, " looking 
hopelessly about him, like Quintus Curtius in the riddle, for a 
nice opening for a young man, is totally ignorant of the oppor- 



Pounds^ Shillings^ and Fence, 39 

tunities, if not for fame and fortune, at least for competency and 
comfort, that literature now offers to a clever lad. He believes, 
perhaps, that it is only geniuses that succeed in it ; or, as is more 
probable, he regards it as a hand-to-mouth calling, which to-day 
gives its disciples a five-pound note -and to-morrow five pence. 
He calls to mind a saying about literature being a good stick, but 
not a good crutch — an excellent auxiliary, but no permanent 
support ; but he forgets the all-important fact that the remark 
was made half a-century ago." This is all very well from that 
most fortunate of literary men, a clever and successful novelist, 
who shines in a sphere of the profession which cannot wrll at any 
time be overcrowded. He, clearly, is not in a position to judge 
either for the average essayist or for the journalist proper. 

And here let us pause a moment to make a necessary distinction 
between two divisions of the profession we are considering, litera- 
ture and journalism — taking literature to mean broadly the 
writing of books, magazines, and reviews, and journalism the writing 
for newspapers. These are distinct in the talents, character, 
aims, and remunerations which they imply. A journalist is bound 
to be a man of the world, as an author is bound to be a student. 
The former developes a capacity for representing his era, for 
letting the general opinion speak through him even while he helps 
to guide it. He produces work which is eminently marketable ; 
and the more of this quality appears in his writings, the more 



40 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

successful he will be. Mr. Sala 
jTt ^ rr / is a king among journalists ; his 

Z ' '' *^ success is pre-eminent, proverbial; 

yet it is said that he is wont to 
tell his friends that he took to journalism because he failed, 
only comparatively, of course, in literature. That there are 
differences in the requisite talents, therefore, is clear. Not a few 
are able to combine the two things, to be at once students and 
men of the world, but in these instances journalism generally is 
subservient to authorship, or vice versa, according to the state of 
the author's mind or of his finances — for these two branches of the 
profession differ, as we have said, not only in the qualifications 
they require, but also in the scale of their rewards. 

Southey, of course, belonged to Uterature; and w'e shall first 
consider what work of the same order as his, which was 
wretchedly paid then, is valued at in the market now. Fiction 
we leave out of the question; the price it fetches is far in 
excess of that which is given for prose writing of any other 
kind, and is magnificent. And this, whatever may be said, was 
the case half-a-century ago as it is now — was so when Walter 
Scott annually made ;!^ 10,000 for several years, quite as much 
as when George Eliot received for "Romola" ;^8,ooo. Other 
literary labour cuts a sorry figure in comparison. Were not 
Mr. Payn, who probably commands his fifty shillings a page for 




Pounds, Shillings, and Pence. 41 

fiction, a writer of novels, he 
would give a less seductive (J 
view of the profits of the J- /Z^P^-^^^ 
literary career. For the pound ^ 
which the Nineteenth Century, and the Contemporary, and the 
Quarterly pay for a printed page is quite the highest regulation 
rate of remuneration for the periodical essayist and reviewer. 
The shilling monthhes give Ofi an average rather under than over 
half that sum ; while in a certain high-class weekly, a long book- 
notice, which has, perhaps, involved the patient study of two 
bulky volumes, and which, when done conscientiously, has 
consumed some five or six days, has only ^£2 as its pecuniary 
equivalent. Another literary weekly^ where, again, the work 
involves the twofold task of reading and writing, pays los. a 
column; and other papers, of less eminence, in proportion. 
This might be very fair remuneration were not work of the 
kind difficult to get, and doled out in minute portions, week 
by week, month by month, quarter by quarter. The magazines, 
reviews, and literary papers of standing can almost be counted on 
the fingers ; and with an army of applicants for an appearance in 
their pages, no one man, hov/ever brilliant he may be, can have 
anything like a monopoly. Perhaps hardly a single writer on 
any of the weekly literary papers has an article inserted every 
week throughout the year ; yet, if he had, his total earnings would 



42 'Journals and yournalism, 

only amount to a sum which it would be a mockery to speak 
of, in the ordinary sense, as an income. Do the monthly maga- 
zines offer better rewards ? If in one or other of them a single 
writer made one monthly appearance (and what a brilliant writer 
he would be !), the result would certainly be less than ;£iS^ 
per annum ; yet the amateur, seeing that writer's name in the 
Cornhill one month, in Macmillan the next, in The Contemporary 
the month after, would, perhaps, imagine him to be rolling in 
wealth. It is hardly a secret that even Mr. Mallock, who not 
only writes well, but has caught the public ear, and whose work 
is welcomed by The Nineteenth Century, The Contemporary, and 
Tlie Edinburgh, has hitherto made an income by his pen quite 
insufficient to allow him to regard literature as his career. 

Poetry, like fiction, is exceptional ; the former being, in a 
general way, as much less, as the latter is more, remunerative 
than other literary work. Of course the public has its one prime 
poetical favourite, and pays him well, though not better now (as 
Mr. Tennyson would feelingly assure Mr. Payn) than it did fifty 
years ago. Until last year the Laureate received, from one firm, 
annually ^^4,000 for his copyrights ; but there is only room for 
one Tennyson at a time. Walter Scott got 2,000 guineas for the 
'* Lady of the Lake," but Walter Scott had to abandon poetry 
as soon as Lord Byron appeared ; and while Lord Byron was 
calculating one morning that he had made ;^24,ooo by poetry, 



Pounds^ Shillings, and Pence. 43 

Shelley was complaining of the printer's bill he had to defray 
out of his own pocket. Poetry like Southey's paid little in that 
day, and would pay less now. Mr. Browning's receipts may be 
smaller than those of some of the veriest hacks in prose. 
Mr. Edwin Arnold would probably get more for a dozen political 
leaders, hastily thrown off, than for the " Light of Asia," a work 
of scholarly erudition, of inspired poetry, and the outcome of 
half a lifetime of Oriental study and sympathy — a work which has 
fixed his place among the English bards. And Mr. Aubrey 
de Vere — whom Landor loved, and whom Sir Henry Taylor 
names in the same breath with Wordsworth — would probably 
have to confess that his lifelong service of the muse brought him 
less than his handful of articles in the Edinburgh years ago, 
containing, in all, the prose writing of perhaps a single month. 
The magazine verse of to-day is excellent, and is paid for in 
the best quarters at the rate of about half-a-crown a line; in 
others, two guineas, a guinea, and even half-a-guinea are the sums 
given for a short set of verses. And the supply of such poetry 
is, of course, largely in excess of the demand. Clearly, then, in 
all these cases, literature, while an excellent stick, and one which 
we would encourage amateurs to use, is decidedly unsafe as 
a crutch. 

But journalism can give a somewhat better account of itself. 
Those arts which bring their votaries into close contact with men, 



44 Journals and journalism. 

and into the full light of publicity, are usually enriched with the 
rewards attending effective performance. The musician who 
creates — the composer — is seldom fortunate in his lifetime, while 
the musician who performs — the singer — has the wealth of kings 
at his feet. This case is rather an exaggeration of that of author 
and journalist; still there is a resemblance : the journalist gets the 
ear of the public; his writing is good performance, rather than 
creation, for it must be not so much original as interpretative, 
both of public opinion and of the collected literary opinions 
of the world. 

The work of the journalist is in constant demand ; his organs 
infinitely outnumber the organs of literature, and they appear 
weekly, daily, and twice a day, instead of once a quarter, once 
a month, and once a week. Every daily, for instance, gives 
employment to a large and well-rewarded staff. There are the 
editor, the sub-editors, the special correspondents, the regularly 
retained leader-writers, most of whose salaries, in the case of the 
Times — naturally the most profitable daily to be connected with — 
go into four figures ; nor are the other London dailies far behind 
the leading organ in the remuneration of their staff. The work is 
wearing, no doubt; but the pecuniary returns are sufficient to 
tempt able men to undertake it, and to make it a career which a 
man who has no private means, and who wishes to prosper 
in the world and to provide for his family, can afford deliberately 



Pounds, Shillings, afid Pence. 45 

to enter on. But for the dailies, destitution would stare many a 
journalist in the face. And not only does each maintain its estab- 
lished staff, which, in the case of the Tijncs, is, of course, immense ; 
but it also gives employment to a large class of journalistic 
irregulars, who turn their hands to anything — the unattached 
(sometimes by their faults, and sometimes by their misfortunes) 
penny-a-liners — three-halfpence-a-liners, would be nearer the mark 
— of the press. Always living from hand to mouth, and often 
on the verge of destitution, this large body of literary casuals 
includes in its ranks three principal classes — that of the men of 
briUiant powers and education, in whom the quality of sustained 
industry is wanting, and who might have developed into 
Macaulays but for this deficiency ; that of the industrious, who 
are useful and handy, but whose capacity is mediocre ; and that 
of the possessors of both talent and perseverance who work when 
and how they can, no assured position having yet fallen to their 
lot. That such men as these are often hungry is a fact, and one 
of the saddest facts of modern intellectual life. Even the new 
world has to tell the same story. "Two-thirds of all the working 
journalists of the country," says a writer in Harper's Monthly, 
"receive less than the wages of good mechanics," "I beheve 
the majority of us," says an American journalist, Mr. A. F. Hill, 
"have passed through the hard-up days. What is the use of 
denying it? I have worked for five dollars a. week, and slept on 



46 'Journals and Journalism. 

a pile of exchanges. I have seen the time when ' circumstances 
over which I had no control ' dictated to me the necessity — not 
merely the propriety — of eating plainer food than I would have 
liked — plainer food than the kind I needed, and of not even 
wasting any of that. I have seen the time when a person I know 
very intimately has gone without food for days at a time, and that 
when in excellent bodily health, and blessed (?) with an unusual 
appetite. I have seen the days of threadbare clothes, of dilapidated 
shoes, and a ' shocking bad hat ; ' and when it brought the 
hot blood to my face to hear careless and happy and well-fed and 
well-clothed people merrily singing the chorus of a well-known 
song : 

" Too proud to beg, too honest to steal, 
We know what it is to be wanting a meal ; 
Our tatters and rags we try to conceal. 
We belong to the ' Shabby Genteel.' " 

Such experiences as these are not unknown among some of our 
own most painstaking journalists who seem to be fairly busy, and 
some of whom are, in fact, on the high road to fame. The world 
hears little about such poverty as this, but it is none the less real ; 
nay, if it were a little less so, there would be less of a sensitive 
desire to lock it in silence. When The Edinburgh was pro- 
jected in Jeffrey's elevated lodging, Sydney Smith proposed as its 



Pounds^ Shillings, and Pence. 47 

motto, Temii musam meditamur avenct (we cultivate literature on 
a little oatmeal) ; but the phrase was not adopted, because, as a 
matter of fact, it came so near the truth. However, the pecuniary 
result of the Edmburgh brings us back to a brighter train of 
thought. The journaHst sometimes rises to a position of wealth 
and honour, not only as an editor, but also as a newspaper pro- 
prietor. If he have the tact and talent to start a really successful 
journal on his own account, he comes on a pecuniary windfall ; 
such a one, for instance, as is the World to Mr. Edmund Yates. 
This, of course, is an idyllic state of things ; where the author is 
selling and profiting by his own wares without being preyed on 
unconscionably by publishers and middle-men. 

But if it is comparatively rare that the functions of author and 
publisher can be united in one man, it is not so, as we have 
already hinted, in regard to the functions incidental to the two 
divisions of the writer's profession — literature and journalism. 
Many men are able to practise at once in the one and the other, 
and this capability lightens up some of the gloomier facts we have 
noted in a separate consideration of the two branches of the career. 
The two things work together, as nearly every writer knows. The 
votary of literature, in the sense in which we have used the word, 
may turn his hand to just so much journalism as will keep " the 
pot boiUng ; " while the journalist pleasantly and profitably stops 
the rapid and ephemeral exercise of his anonymous pen, to indite 



48 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

something of a graver or more imaginative order to which he has 
the novel satisfaction of appending his name. 

The following memorandum, which has been supplied to us by 
a young litterateur, whose experience may be taken as representa- 
tive of that of a fairly successful and industrious member of his 
profession, will not be without an interest for those who are about 
to adopt literature as a career : — 

" At the age of twenty-five, having scribbled in a purposeless, 
unprofessional way for several years, I suffered a reverse of fortune 
which made me exceedingly anxious to increase my diminished 
private means. Literature seemed the only thing ready to hand. 
I consulted two or three friends who already held nlore or less 
prominent positions on the press, and I found that the more 
successful they were the more hopeless was the prospect they held 
out of my chances of making money, even in the most moderate 
amounts. This I thought rather strange, but I remembered that 
the author of the celebrated crutch and stick saying was Walter 
Scott, who made, all the same, a gigantic fortune by his pen, and 
I determined to show my discouraging advisers what I could do. 
I was told that the ' Society papers ' paid better than any others, 
and that there was more opening on them than on the older 
journals, which had already a huge literary connexion. This I 
found to be the fact, and, although I tried valiantly to get a market 
for serious work, it had far less acceptance than had the * trifles 



Founds, Shillings y and Pence. 49 

light as air' which I tossed off in other directions. I had several 
introductions to editors — and they ended in nothing : my work 
was my only introduction to the papers on which I got employ- 
ment — a fact which I recommend to the notice of the amateurs 
for whose benefit you are writing. I find that I have kept a 
record of my third year's labour, I had about 200 paragraphs 
in The World ; a still greater number, and ten articles besides, in 
another society paper ; thirty paragraphs in Truth ; five articles in 
The Queen; three articles in The Spectator; a poem in Good 
Words ; a poem in The Quiver ; thirty-five articles in different 
monthly magazines ; fifty-two columns of London correspondence 
in a provincial paper (at 1 2S. 6d. a column) ; twenty-six London 
letters in a Colonial paper (at 10s. a letter) ; and a few odds and 
ends besides. These are the accepted contributions, but they 
represent little more than half of that which I actually wrote — 
the balance having missed fire. My total proceeds were 
;^247 135'. 2d. I often worked twelve hours a day, and I never 
had a week's holiday. But, as you see, if I had not possessed a 
trifle of my own, I could not have kept a decent roof over my 
family's head. And yet I have often been told by other struggling 
men that I am exceptionally lucky." 

From this statement it will be seen that the writer had the 
advantage of practice in both literature and journafism ; on the 
other hand, lest the results should be unduly deterrent, let us note 

C 



50 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

that he had no work on a daily, nor had he any subject to treat that 
was pecuharly his own. The man with a specialty, the art critic, 
or the dramatic critic, for instance, if he be really proficient, has 
some advantages over his more versatile brother ; he may have to 
compete very hard for his post, but, once having obtained it, he 
has a monopoly on the particular paper with which he is con- 
nected. Moreover, he is sometimes able in a sense to duplicate 

his work, as did Mr. Tom Taylor, 
^^ " \ /^^"^^ ^ ^ fo^ instance, when he criticised 
'V'^^^^ ^^^/^-^""'^'^V^ pictures in both the Graphic and 

The Times. And who shall say 
that there are no good incomes to be made on newspapers while 
mentioning the name of the late editor of Punch ? 

Nor must it be forgotten that the Fleet Street journahst has 
frequently, in addition to his London work, profitable employment 
on a country paper. A great many leaders in the provincials are 
the work of metropolitan pens ; and the London correspondence 
also that appears in them affords scope for a good deal of literary 
labour and enterprise. Many of these journals contain excellent 
personal information, which was, in fact, the natural precursor of 
the society journals — these latter supplying a place which the 
I^ondon dailies failed to fill. There is, no doubt, an enormous 
amount of trash written in the shape of London letters and 
gossip ; but there is also much interesting and good matter, such 



Pounds, Shillings, and Pence. 5 1 

as it is natural enough that people should like to read. A few 
country papers have a special wire, and telegraph every night a 
London letter which contains " tips" usually sent in, as are the 
paragraphs in the society papers, not by one man, but by many. 
Some of these letters cost the proprietors from ^1,000 tO;^2,ooo 
a year. It sometimes happens — Mr. Lucy's is a case in point — 
that one man is able enough to take entire charge of a letter of the 
kind, and by manifolding it for papers in different parts of the 
country, can afford to do his work really well and to supply it 
cheaply, at the same time securing a fair income. Then, again, 
there is the London correspondentship for the Colonies, for the 
United States, and all parts of the Continent. Some of these posts 
are among the prizes of literature, ^ / . 

and they fall to such men as Mr. M y / iJTrn J/izAA^ 
Joseph Hatton, a knight of the C^-^^f/U^ i^i^^^^i 
pen who has fought and won in * 

nearly every field of letters, and who is the English correspondent 
of the New York Times. 

If the reader should think that our illustrations in this chapter 
have been somewhat conflicting, or complain that we arrive at no 
definite deductions, we, for our part, must own to having been met 
on our inquiry by many contradictions. But we shall not go far 
wrong, nor raise false hopes or false fears, if we sum up by saying of 
the incomes made by the writers in newspapers and magazines : 



5 2 'Journals and Journalism. 

Sufficient they may be ; fair, according to the infallible balance of 
supply and demand, they must be ; but they are seldom brilliant. 
There is probably bread to be had, in requital of industry and of 
the indispensable capacity, for all who are likely to make a 
serious profession of letters ; but there are few — very few — fortunes 
to be won. 



k^- 



1%M- 



^ JOURNALISM AS A CAREER. 

I. The Fair Side. 

T is more effective to take the extreme 
uplands or lowlands of exaggeration than 
the vm media of fact. Consequently those 
who have treated of journalism and litera- 
ture as a profession have generally been 
tempted to strike their readers' fancy by a 
picturesque view of the advantages and 
disadvantages of a calling in which the 
pros and cons are in truth tolerably balanced. We all know the 
starving author of tradition ; and if he is now somewhat out of 
date we have still the constant repetition of a facile and rather 
wearisomely conventional joke by which the labours of a labourer 
who is, like all others, worthy of his hire, appear as a drug in the 
market — witness the inevitable waste-paper basket which is thrown 
at his head by Punch and other humourists when subjects for 
jesting flag. There is, on the other hand, the couleur de rose 
view which has recently been asserted in one or two quarters, not, 




54 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

of course, with an intention to mislead, but decidedly with the 
effect of doing so, and this probably with serious consequences. 
Our own task is to state advantages and disadvantages with the 
single intention of making the truth stand forth, to encourage what 
is now the widespread ambition of having a voice in the great 
expression of public opinion, but to avoid the grave responsibility 
of leading the inexperienced to cast themselves blindfold into a 
career in which they may be doomed to disappointment. The fair 
surface being the uppermost, we shall consider it first, and then 
proceed to turn it over and to expose with all frankness the seamy 
under-side. 

The advantages which journalism has at first sight over all other 
professions are very obvious, and may be stated in the words of 
Mr. Anthony Trollope and Mr, James Payn. " It is," says the 
former, "a business which has its allurements. It requires no 
capital, no special education, and may be taken up at any time 
without a moment's delay. If a man can command a table, a 
chair, pen, ink, and paper, he can commence his trade as a literary 
man. It is thus that aspirants generally do commence it." 
" There are," says Mr, Payn, " hundreds of clever young men who 
are now living at home and doing nothing, who might be earning 
very tolerable incomes by their pens if they only knew how." 
While accepting these statements as containing part-truths, it is 
necessary for a moment to give them certain limitations which 



'Journalism as a Career. ^^ 

modify but do not refute the contention of the two authors. We 
grant that it is possible for the hundreds of clever young men who 
are able to continue to " live at home," and who have no impera- 
tive necessity for doing something else, to make incomes which shall 
be eminently " tolerable " under the circumstances. Journalism 
on these conditions can hardly be called a career, or — what Mr. 
Trollope calls it — a trade. It is a part-profession, an auxiliary of 
more or less value and effectiveness in proportion to the cleverness 
possessed by the young men in question. As for the training, it 
is certainly not indispensable before making a first attempt ; but 
every rejection which the young man undergoes (and he will have 
many to endure) is a part of his training, and a part which he 
would find very hard to bear if he were entirely dependent on his 
pen. When Mr. Anthony Trol- 
lope gives us the financial state- >^^ y^ y) /'^/02 >, 
ment already quoted of the results '-'^-•^^ >^:»n/ 
of his first years of labour, is he 

not in fact describing a particularly hard period of literary novice- 
ship — a period which might be full of the bitterest privations, 
occurring as it does at a time of life when a man is no longer 
enjoying the parental care and support which are cheerfully 
accorded to him in earlier years ? That such a noviceship and 
preparation were tolerable, or perhaps possible, to Mr. Trollope is 
simply due to the fact that he held at the time a position in the 



56 'Journals and yournaHsm. 

Post-office which was practically his profession, i.e., his means of 
support, and hence that he was able to follow literature for a time 
as an amateur. When he talks of an aspirant "commencing his 
trade " with " a chair, pen, ink, and paper," his own experience 
might have convinced him that it is hardly a trade which 
is commenced with that stock, but rather a training for a 
trade. The same holds good with Thackeray, only that instead of 
a place in the Post-office he had at his back a small private fortune, 
the larger part of which he devoted to buying literary experience — in 
other words, he lost it in the attempt to float a couple of newspapers. 
Another novelist and journalist, Mr. Edmund Yates, was, like 
Mr. Anthony Trollope, in the Post-office, and thus able to exercise 
his "prentice hand" at letters until such time as they should 

yield him not only support but 
"1 ^^^^ fortune. Mr. Wilkie ColUns, an- 
other ultimately successful mas- 
ter of fiction, had the support of 
his father's help in the tea-trade first and afterwards in the law, 
while his literary talents were under trial. It would certainly seem, 
then, that technical training, with the sacrifice of time and money 
which it necessarily implies, is generally deferred rather than fore- 
gone ; that no special success, at any rate, is possible without it ; 
and that even the humbler branches of journalism can ill afford to 
dispense with it. No one, for instance, who has read Charles 




'yournal'wn as a Career. ' 57 

Dickens's description of the difficulties of mastering short-hand 
related in the person of David Copperfield — the long study, the 
fever in which Traddles's declamation and " my aunt's " " hear, 
hear," were reported, and the impossibility of reading the report 
when completed — will come to the conclusion that the science of 
stenography, at least, needs no technical preparation. 

Having made these modifications — a duty we feel bound to 
perform even at the expense of our point — we conceive that there 
remains in the modified version of the statements quoted an 
advantage for the beginner in literature which justifies us in even 
making a parade of them, and which will be missed by the 
beginner in almost any other career. If it has been necessary 
to guard the amateur against the supposition that without training, 
and before he is out of his teens, he can make a good and support- 
ing income by scribbling, we must still point out that he possesses 
the opportunity afforded by hardly another profession, of carrying 
on his training and his trade at the same moment. Even suppos- 
ing that for the first five years of his labour all he wrote were 
rejected, or printed without remuneration, he would be in no 
worse position than his neighbour who is articled to a solicitor 
but his MSS., if he has the making of a literary man in him at all, 
will not be treated so badly as that. Anthony Trollope's first year's 
real return for his literary labour was the experience he gained in 
it, and with only that in almost any other profession he would 

c 2 



5 8 'Journals and Jourjialism. 

have had to be satisfied ; but, as it was, he made a few pounds 
besides. Thus the Uterary novice may know that even while he is 
educating himself he can earn an income which, though it will be 
insufficient to maintain him except in a Grub-street garret, will at 
any rate contribute towards his support during a period in which 
he would otherwise be more likely than not to depend for that 
support wholly on his private resources. If Mr. Payn and Mr. 
Trollope had borrowed the words of a recent writer in Belgravia, 
who said, " Anyone can scribble — if he only knows how to spell ; 
but writing is an art — one of the Fine Arts," and had added that 
even scribbling, if fairly clever, is remunerated after a fashion, 
while at the same time it trains the pen — they would perhaps have 
stated their case in a more strictly accurate and intelligent way. 
And even this text would have justified them, and justifies us, in 
preaching the superiority of letters over almost any other career 
in its beginnings. 

We have already drawn a distinction between journalism and 
other departments of letters. The apprenticeship over and a fair 
success once attained, how does this branch of literature look 
as a career ? That it is interesting, that it has the attraction of a 
variety of thoughts and feelings, that it brings a man into close 
connection with all the moving principles and large ideas of his 
day, is sufficient reason why it should be loved. It compares 
temptingly in this respect with those commercial pursuits which 



Journalism as a Career, 59 

are becoming every day more and more the necessary callings of 
gentlemen. The banker must needs think money during the 
whole of his working day, the tea-dealer perforce thinks tea, and 
the wine-merchant wine ; politics, literature, social interests, 
science and art are with them extra-professional, if, indeed, business 
be not so paramount as to drive these almost entirely from the 
field of thought. And the liberal vocations are Hmited more or 
less to their own spccialite ; the artist is not called upon to know 
much about letters, the politician may be profoundly ignorant of 
painting, the savant generally considers himself privileged to hold 
politics in supreme contempt, and the musician above all is apt to 
dispense himself from the most ordinary interest in everything 
that is not musical. Now, the litterateur is not only encouraged 
but obliged to be various ; well for him ; he is so much the more 
a man; and even if he choose some special "line" for the labours 
of his pen, if he devote the best of his powers to "knowing 
everything of something," he yet multiplies his resources, interests, 
and pleasures by " knowing something of everything." 

The earnest physician holds his profession to be a noble one 
because it saves individual lives, but the journalist's career will 
give him the opportunity of saving nations by his advocacy of 
peace at a time when war is at once imminent and unnecessary. 
He is the mainstay of the reformer and of the philanthropist, 
who would labour in vain if unassisted by the soldier of the 



6o journals and yournahsm. 

pen. In a hundred instances journals have been the means 

of raising large funds to meet emergencies of distress. We find 

even a light paper like the Paris Figaro becoming the centre of 

a widespread organization for the relief of indigence during a 

winter of extreme severity. And an Irish priest writes from the 

midst of a starving population to the correspondent of the 

paper he names : " But for you and the Daily Telegraph I 

know not how under Heaven I could have stayed famine here 

To my last breath shall I remember you with undying affection and 

gratitude." And in like manner, twenty years ago, The Times's 

strenuous advocacy of the cause of English houseless poor in a 

cold season resulted in a handsome sum for their relief Scarcely 

less practical a charity is that which is performed by the press 

when it exposes the frauds that would gain currency did they 

escape its vigilance. This is a duty which has its dangers, as was 

shown for instance in 1841, when The Times was instrumental in 

detecting a scheme organized by a company to defraud by forgery 

all the influential bankers of Europe, and when an exposure in its 

columns brought on the proprietors an action for libel, Boyle v. 

. Lawson, in which our law technically compelled the jury to give 

a verdict for the plaintiff, with one farthing damages. A European 

subscription was set on foot to reimburse the proprietors for their 

immense outlay in legal expenses, but they declined the money, 



"Journalism as a Career. 6 1 

and the greater portion of it was finally spent in establishing 
Times scholarships for Oxford and Cambridge at Christ's Hosjwtal 
and the City of London School. Such are some of the lofty and 
hmiianitarian inducements to enter the profession of letters ; while 
the ardent politician, if he be entrusted with the direction of an 
important paper, wields, as was once said of the editor of The 
TitJtes, " a power as great as that of Governments and Legislatures." 
Moreover, in all that he writes he has the inspiration not only of 
his cause, but of knowing that he addresses an audience such as 
his voice, were he an orator, could never cover — to the number, it 
may be, of half-a-million. Nor are the incentives of the political 
partizan wanting in the journalist whose 'predilection is for art, 
and who cares to advance the interests of this or that school of 
painting ; or whose passion is literature or music, and who wishes 
to mould the public taste on his own : or who, as a private friend, 
desires to say a good word for the artist, the actor, or the author 
whose personality he loves, and whose work merits the recognition. 
These are pleasures keen enough to make life worth living, and 
they are peculiar to the literary career. 

And journalism has not only its own rewards ; it is also " a 
stepping-stone to higher things," and to more lucrative things. 
Just as literature, apart from journalism, brought Bulwer a barony, 
and Barry Cornwall and Forstcr profitable Lunacy Commissioner- 



62 journals and 'Journalism, 

-^ rt ships, and just as Mr. Edward 

/ y "^Va^ A^' Jenkins, in 1874, had no other 

^/?/ W / ^^^"^^^^^"^ ' introduction to the electors of 

' "* Dundee than " Ginx's Baby," so 

also has journalism pure and simple its extraneous distinctions and 

rewards. In the present Parliament the profession is more 

numerously and strongly represented than it ever was before. 

Mr. Passmore Edwards, who is proprietor of the Echo and of 

a building journal, and to whom Mr, Gladstone recently wrote, 

" You have been surpassed by none in the courage and constancy 

with which you have contended through evil times for a just 

policy abroad," sits for Salisbury ; while an ex-editor of the Echo^ 

Mr. Arthur Arnold, a brother of Mr. Edwin Arnold of the Daily 

Telegraphy represents Salford. Newcastle-on-Tyne has given to 

Mr, Joseph Cowen, proprietor 
/^{} _ of the spiritedly conducted 

*^ C--<^ Newcastle Chronicle, a colleague 

in Mr. Ashton Dilke, pro- 
prietor of the Weekly Dispatch, 
^^ y ^f—y /"^^ ^^ ^^^ brother of Sir Charles 
K.^^/^ /t-^=>»» ^^ Dilke, Chelsea's senior member, 

himself the owner of the 
Athenceu?n. Mr. Courtney, of The Times, retains his seat for 
Liskeard, and the proprietor of that paper is still the member for 




'Journalism as a Career, 63 

Berks. Mr. Labouchere, part proprietor of the Daily News and 
editor of Truths divides the representation of Northampton with 
Mr. Bradlaugh, who projected the National Reformer. South- 
East Lancashire sends to ParHament, in the person of Mr. 
WiUiam Agnew, not merely a magnate among picture dealers, but 
one of the proprietors of Punch. Mr. Beresford-Hope owns 
the Saturday Revieza. Mr. Macliver, who won at Plymouth, is 
the proprietor of the spirited Western Daily Press. Ireland 
sends a strong contingent, among whom are Mr. Edward 
Dwyer Gray, of the FreeiJian^s 

Journal : Mr. A. M. Sullivan, late /^/^..^rTr;} — y ^^ 
editor of the Nation; his bro- ^7^ . ft^^t^^^^^ "^ 
ther, T. D. Sullivan, now the 
editor and proprietor of that 
paper, and Mr. Sexton, the latter's 




associate editor ; Mr. T. P. ' j y{ / /y ' j 

O'Connor, author of the scathing ' K*k<'U^-<^^ . 

Life of Lord Beaconsfield; Mr. F. 

H. O'Donnell, a hard-working ^ ^ /fL.^ %^ 

journalist on the London press ; i/\ ^. ^ ^^«rx*-'^-*-'<^'^7 

Mr. Lysaght Finigan, Mr. Parnell's 

" lieutenant " — and Mr. Justin 

McCarthy, novelist, historian, ^.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

and leader-writer on the Daily 




64 'Journals and yournalism. 

News. Mr. Alfred Austin, indeed, whose name has long been 
rescued from the anonymity of leader-writing or book-reviewing in 
the Standard by achievements in the open literary world, tried for 
a seat and failed ; so did Mr. Thomas Gibson Bowles, of Vanity 
Fair ; so did Mr. John Morley, editor of the Fortnightly and the 
Pall Mall Gazette; and so did Sir Algernon Borthwick, of the 
Morning Post, who was consoled by a knighthood for his narrow 
electoral defeat. Some of these names — those belonging to the 
inheritors of wealthy newspaper proprietorships, for instance— do 
little to point our moral ; but there are others among them 
which rejDresent men who do distinctly owe to their connection 
with the journalistic world, and to it alone, their position in life 
and in the legislature. 

Then, again, journalism has supported men while they kept 
terms and were called to the bar ; witness, as one among many, 
the late Hepworth Dixon, who also obtained temporary but 
lucrative Exhibition Commissionerships, and was, moreover, 
invited to contest Marylebone in 1868. Once a barrister, the 
journalist may go on to higher things still, even till he shall occupy 
the woolsack itself, like Lord Chancellor Campbell, who walked 
from Scotland with the traditional trifle in his pocket to begin 
life as a reporter on the Morning Chronicle. The same paper 
gave the same employment to Dickens, who, like many others, 
passed from this more mechanical rank of journalism, not to the 



yoiirnalism as a Career. 65 

law, but to authorship — to a more sympathetic, human, and 
briUiant fame. Such emphatically was his who, young and utterly 
alone in the world, unhelped by word or act of man, serving 
letters alone and aided by them only, reached an unshared 
throne of renown in the memory and love of men. 



11. The Seamy Side, 




AVING examined the fair side, we proceed 
to explore the seamy. And on turning 
up the other surface, one sees at a 
glance that what was on the first sight an 
ornament, shows through the stuff, and 
appears here with a reverse and a very 
ugly effect. In other words, the gain 
of the journalistic beginner in being able 
to dispense in part with an apprenticeship, and in requiring no 
heavy stock-in-trade before he begins, or tries to begin, business, 
has, from another point of view than that which we took in 
the last chapter, its serious disadvantages. For this very ease, 
and this partial exemption from the responsibilities and difficulties 
of other callings, inevitably give to literature somewhat of the 
character of a fis-aller. A boy is rarely brought up to a pro- 
fession for which a bringing up does not seem a necessity ; he 
rather turns to it in after years when he has failed elsewhere, 
through loss of fortune, through incapacity in the calling chosen 
for him, or because that calling has disappointed his hopes. 
And, besides being a pis-aller through its exemption from training, 



'Journalism as a Career. 67 

literature is calculated to be an over-crowded profession through 
its exemption from the usual preliminary sacrifice of capital — two 
immunities which must always tend to keep down the profits of 
literary work. Moreover, they induce a large number of people 
to make literature a part-career, thus damaging it for those who 
have no other means of support. With far more justice than the 
tradesman could the journalist cry out against the Government 
Office men, whose contributions (and on official paper too !) pour 
into the editorial letter-boxes of London ; but he does not do so ; 
he frankly accepts the conditions of his calling, though he may 
momentarily regret, when he hears of men with large public or 
private incomes writing at a price which entails semi-starvation 
if entirely depended on for support, that there is not a little more 
trade unionism among authors. And yet, curiously enough, it is 
exactly these semi-professionals whom we have heard denouncing 
in the most unmeasured terms the miserable pittance to be 
earned on the press — a proceeding which always reminds us of 
the case of the man who, having murdered his father and mother, 
appealed to the court for mercy because he was an orphan. 

Those who are mentally or physically incapable of hard work, 
will find a seamy side indeed to the journalistic career. Above 
all things it is laborious — not as practised in the ad libitum 
manner of the beginner, who may or may not, as he feels inclined, 
produce his day's task; but as followed by the professional 



68 journals and Journalism. 

journalist, who has achieved, say, the somewhat eminent success 
of a post on the staff of a fairly good daily paper. In that 
position an amount of application which would bring name and 
fame to the barrister, the clergyman or the doctor, only suffices 
for the bare fulfilment of his duty. Say he is a special corre- 
spondent ; his fate is as little in his own hands as is that of the 
Jesuit priest whom we have been taught to commiserate, because 
he is liable to be ordered by his general to change his address from 
Mount Street, Berkeley Square, to India, or China, at a moment's 
notice. The newspaper correspondent, without the stimulus of a 
religious motive, but simply as part of the year's labour that 
secures him what a successful barrister would hardly call a 
decently good income, holds himself in daily readiness to start 
for an exhibition in Sydney, or a royal wedding in Vienna, or a 
funeral at Madrid ; or he is told off to study Nihilism on the spot, 
in a Russian mid-winter ; or sent across a burning African desert 
on perilous enterprise; nor is there ever a battle fought without his 
presence, where English or European interests are involved. And 
if the soldier and sailor in active service have a harder time than 
the correspondent who accompanies them, it must not be forgotten 
that he often shares their risks — a deadly climate, for instance, 
is as fatal to him as to them — but gains none of their glory ; that 
they are facing perils in fulfilment of their career, and he only as 
an accident of his ; and that whereas they retire in middle life 



'Journalism as a Career, 69 

with half-pay and pensions, and often with titular distinctions, it 
was never known, we suppose, that a newspaper correspondent 
was idle till he came to the long obscurity of the grave. A retired 
journalist, in the true sense of the word — that is to say, one who 
retired on the money made in a purely journalistic career — is an 
individual whose acquaintance we have yet to make. 

Of course there are members of a newspaper staff who stay 
at home at ease. Not much ease either, in the case, for instance, 
of the political leader-writer, who turns night into day to work 
upon latest information. For instance, Mr. Justin McCarthy, 
before he was elected for Longford, was a diligent attender at the 
House of Commons, listening in the gallery for the last word of a 
Ministerial statement, or of an Opposition attack; and then, at 
perhaps one or two o'clock in the morning, sitting down to finish the 
leader which the readers of the Daily News conned over at break- 
fast, or in early trains. Or, let us take the case of the sub-editor, 
or co-editor, of another of the London dailies, whom we have in 
mind. He is so chained to his work that he is only able to give a 
dinner-party or to dine out once in the week (a limitation which 
would be a substantial grievance to a man of equal eminence in 
another profession) ; and on this solitary festive occasion he is often 
obliged to leave his guests or his hosts to write a leader on some 
unexpected event. He has only one morning — that of Saturday — 
in which he can take the solace of gun or line, or mere country 



yo 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

air ; not only must he be up late at night, but he is impatient 
to rise early in the morning, so that he may con the "latest 
intelligence " of the rival dailies, to satisfy himself that they have 
not outdone his own ; his brain is not only active with constant 
production, but worn with responsibility ; and his annual holiday, 
especially if the political times are stirring, is none too long. 

Nor does the hard labour of the sub-editor, the special 

correspondent, or the leader-writer abate one jot if the pinnacle of 

the profession— a head editorship— be attained. Let us see how 

it fared with him who sat on the throne of journalism, the late Mr. 

^ Delane. "He had," says one of his 

yy ^^J^ friends, "the instincts of family 

^/t'sJ^'y^'T^je^'Ct^,,^^ affection almost to excess ; " yet 

" for many years he could only run 

down on Saturday to bury himself for a few hours in his Berkshire 
home, domestic life in town being obviously out of the question for 
one who for nearly half of each year saw the sun rise every morning, 
not after what it would be a mockery to call his night's rest, but 
before it. He was a warm friend, yet how few were the hours he 
could devote to friendship ! His love of company was something 
more than the natural and universal preference shown by educated 
men for what is called good society, and his personal qualities 
made him welcome wherever he went ; nevertheless, when he joined 
a friendly circle at dinner, as soon as the clock struck ten he 



^Journalism as a Career. ji 

disappeared. "Few," says the friend already referred to, **can 
estimate what it was for Mr. Delane to withdraw as unobservedly 
and as early as he could from the assembled guests, before they 
had joined the ladies, to spend many hours selecting materials, 
pruning redundant paragraphs, fining down tedious narratives, 
deciphering manuscripts, correcting proofs, harmonizing discordant 
intelligence, discovering the sense of telegraphic riddles, and often 
finishing by sacrificing the editorial labour of many hours to make 
room for some bulky and important, but very late, arrival, that must 
be published, at whatever cost." And this gives us a glimpse of the 
huge and constant responsibility of such a post — a responsibility 
which must needs have its own inevitable effect upon health. 
Of course there is only one Delane, but there are a hundred other 
editors of whom the same tale may be told in their degree. Of 
this burden on journalistic eminence, however, we shall say no 
more here, as the subject comes within the scope of the chapter 
headed " In an Editor's Chair." 

Laborious, scantily paid, the profession is moreover inglorious, 
for all but the very few, unless, indeed, we accept that impersonal 
glory — the consciousness of good work done and effective power 
wielded anonymously — as the satisfaction of the natural ambition. 
Many a journalist spends himself — the best of his intellect and the 
flower of his days — in speaking to a public which is and will 
always be utterly ignorant of his individuality. Nor is his 



72 'Journals and yournalism. 

anonymity merely that of a writer who chooses to mask his person 
under one nam de plume but whose work is aj^preciated as the 
utterance of some one man ; it is his fate to bury himself under 
a far profounder incognito than this — nay, he breaks up his 
individuality into a thousand separate fragments, not one of which 
bears the stamp of his name. The man is scattered and lost, the 
character of his work is dissipated by dissemination, and nothing 
remains but the influence of that work falling as it may when sown 
broadcast ; though, by an apt compensation, the impersonality adds 
so much to this influence that few who are journalists at heart 
are found to lament it. A newspaper on the Continent, for 
instance, with its acknowledged articles, has never had and can 
never have the weight in public opinion which an English news- 
paper possesses. The unrivalled position of the English press is 
due fully as much to its anonymity as to its freedom. But this 
train of thought brings us back again to the fairer side of the 
literary career ; and that is the side which we would leave upper- 
most after all. 



/ ^: 



l-^ 



{\ oiik 



J^aJ^' 




^'m AN EDITOR'S CHAIR, f ""I^Z^t 

N editor is a much-abused man. Con- 
tributors who think he has neglected them, 
or failed to appreciate them, or " cut out " 
or " wTitten in " where he should not, do 
not spare him ; the readers of his paper 
do not measure terms when any single 
thing in his many columns strikes them as 
false in taste or below the mark in intelligence. Above all is a 
slip from classical English proclaimed aloud with a kind of gay 
triumph among amateurs who have infinite leisure for the criticism 
of articles hastily revised, perhaps at dead of night, and after long 
hours of labour. Cobbett made the columns of T/ie Times his 
happy hunting-grounds for grammatical mistakes, and his example 
has been followed with less point often since then. This is a very 
cheap sort of censure, and only shows how little the critic has 
reflected on the duties and difficulties of an editor's position. 
Nor are these sufficiently taken to heart by the amateur authors 
already alluded to — even though many among them have no 
greater ambition in life than to sit in an editor's chair. In their 

D 



n^ 'Journals and Journalism. 

imagination it is the throne of an easy power which may sway 
opinion and legislate on politics, ethics, and the arts. They have 
formed no idea to themselves as to the realities of work and 
responsibility — realities hardly to be matched in any other position 
of modern life. Of the editor's labour we have already spoken 

labour of the pen at actual composition and at endless letter- 
writing; labour of the judgment at selection and decision; labour 
of the eyes at proof-reading ; labour of the tongue and temper in 
dealing with men whom for various reasons it is necessary to see 
— from the Minister of State, on whose leisure he must attend, to 
the veriest bore who is too useful a person or too good-natured a 
goose to affront ; labour of the journalistic instinct in putting 
forward what will " take," and of the intelligence at rapid sifting 
of conflicting evidence ; — and all this in the hurry of going to 
press and the anxiety to obtain the latest news, which, by arriving 
in unexpected quantity, or faiUng to come at all, may throw 
out all calculations at the last moment. But great as is the strain 
of this hard work, it is light compared with the burden of re- 
sponsibility which otherwise attaches to his post. And it is this 
responsibility, rather than the mere manual and mental labour, 
that we are about to consider. 

'« When I remember," said Lord Beaconsfield at the Edinburgh 
Corn Exchange in 1867, "the interests of these British Isles, so vast, 
so various and so complicated — when I even recall the differences 



In an 'Editor s Chair. y^ 

of race, which, however blended, leave a very significant 
characteristic — when I recollect that the great majority of the 
population of the United Kingdom rise every day and depend 
for their daily sustenance on their daily labour — when I recollect 
the delicate nature of our credit, more wonderful in my opinion 
than all our accumulated capital — when I remember that it is on 
the common sense, the prudence, and the courage of a community 
thus circumstanced that depends the fate of uncounted millions 
in ancient provinces, and that around the globe there is a circle 
of domestic settlements that watch us for example and inspiration 
— when I know that not a sun rises on a British Minister that does 
not bring him care and even inexpressible anxiety — an unexpected 
war, a disturbed and discontented colony^ a pestilence, a famine, 
a mutiny, a declining trade, a decaying revenue, a collapse 
of credit, perhaps some insane and fantastic conspiracy — I 
declare I very often wonder where there is the strength of 
heart to deal with such colossal circumstances." We shall hardly 
be exaggerating if we draw a parallel between the anxieties of the 
British Minister, thus graphically portrayed, and those of the 
British editor of a leading daily paper, or in their lesser measure 
of those of the editors of important weekly papers which deal 
with current events and criticise public affairs. Take the case of 
the editor of T/ie Times, as an extreme but still a representative 
one. He presides over his staff as a Premier over his Cabinet, 



y6 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

and on his choice of a pohcy — a choice he is sometimes called 
upon to make in a hurry-^-the fate of his paper, involving a capital 
of hundreds of thousands, in some cases of more than a million, 
depends. It is a mistake to suppose that a powerful organ can 
always carry its readers with it; on the contrary, they are 
easily alienated. And on an important and perhaps involved 
national question, to see the right line, to take it, and never to 
falter in pursuing it, is a task as difficult and delicate as that of 
any public man in any capacity whatever. Differences of nation 
and creed concern an editor perhaps even more than they con- 
cern a Minister of State. Then an article in The Times produces 
fluctuations in the money market — the paper itself fluctuating 
with those fluctuations — and even affects the national credit. 
Nay, upon its tone towards foreign powers often depends the 
tremendous alternative of peace or war. To be right and correct 
and in accord with enlightened public opinion in far smaller things 
than these — in the merest details of the merest trivialities — is an 
essential effort on the part of an editor ; the slightest slip may 
by some accidental circumstance assume large proportions, 
and in a moment his credit be gone. The consciousness of this 
is a weight incommensurately greater than that which is experienced 
in other professions — by the barrister under his crucial brief, by 
the doctor under his most critical case. The one may lose a 
single client, and the other fail over a single patient, but the world 



In an RJitors Chair. jj 

will not blame either, if he has taken proper pains : while the 
failure of an editor is apparent to the whole of his huge con- 
stituency, and the chances are that no one will inquire into its 
cause, or care whether he blundered conscientiously or not. 

All this was so feelingly put forth in the memoir of Mr. Delane 
which appeared in The Times, and was, as we know, so feelingly read 
by those who on other papers bore a like or an only lighter burden, 
that we cannot do better than reproduce its salient passages here : 
— " An editor, it has often been said, sometimes not very seriously, 
must know everything. He must, at least, never be found at 
fault, and must be always equal to the occasion as to the personal 
characteristics, the concerns, the acts and utterances of those who 
are charged with the government of this great Empire. But this 
is only one of many points, some even more difficult, because 
more special and more apt to lie for a time out of the scope of 
ordinary vigilance. Since the year 1841 the world has seen 
unprecedented improvements in naval and military material and 
tactics, not slowly making their way as curiosities that might take 
their time, but forced into notice by frequent reminders of their 
necessity. Europe has seen not only two or three but many 
revolutions, wars unexampled for their dimensions, their cost and 
their results ; many dynasties overthrown, an Empire rise and 
fall, another all but finally dismembered amid a scramble over the 
spoil, and several re-unifications effected beyond even the hopes 



yS 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

of former times. Scientific discovery in every department of 
knowledge has been more than ever active, and that in the practical 
bearings which claim the notice of the public from day to day. 
Never before have the earth and the sea so freely revealed their 
resources and their treasures. Continents supposed to be 
protected from intrusive curiosity by intolerable heat, by untam- 
able savagery, or by national jealousy, have been traversed in ail 
directions by explorers whose volumes have been as familiar as 
our Continental handbooks. Within this period have been the 
gold discoveries and the new communities founded on them. It 
is commonly said that the English never really learn geography or 
history till" [these are] " forced upon their acquaintance by wars or 
other disasters. This shows how much has to be learnt if any one 
has to keep pace with the times. The American Civil War, our 
own Indian Mutiny, and the occupation of France by the German 
armies, are events which the future student of history may find 
comprised in a few paragraphs, but the record and explanation 
of them day by day for many months involved particulars sufficient 
to fill many bulky volumes. With a large class of critics, a small 
mistake counts as much as a large one, but everybody is liable to 
make mistakes, and an editor labours under the additional danger 
of too readily accepting the words of writers, some of whom will 
always be too full of their ideas to pay needful attention to such 
matters. These are days of Blue-books, of, enormous correspo»- 



In an Editor s Chair. 



79 



dence, of tabular returns, of statistics twisted into every possible 
form, of averages and differences always on supposition to be 
carefully remembered, of numerical comparisons everybody 
challenges if they are not in his own favour, and of statements 
that if they possess the least novelty or other interest are sure to 
be picked to pieces. It frequently happens that a long night's 
work has to be thrown away, including many carefully-revised 
columns of printed matter, to make room for an overgrown 
Parliamentary debate, a budget of important despatches, or a 
speech made in the provinces. Often has it been said at two in 
the morning that a very good paper has been printed and destroyed 
to make way for a paper that very few will read — none, perhaps, 
except a few Parliamentary gentlemen looking out for passages 
which, if they don't read well, must have been incorrectly reported. 
As an instance of what may happen to an editor, the Quarterly 
Return of the Revenue once came with an enormous error, an 
addition instead of subtraction, or idee versa. The writer who 
had to comment on it jotted down the principal figures, and the 
totals, which were unexpected, and returned the original for the 
jjrinters. It was not till an hour after midnight that, on a sight of 
the Return in print, the error was perceived, and corrected, with- 
out a word of remark, by the paper. Of course, the comments 
had to be re-written and carefully secured from error. . . . The 
work of an editor can only be appreciated by those who have had 



8o 'Journals and journalism. 

the fortune to have some little experience of it. The editor of 
a London daily newspaper is held answerable for every word in 48, 
and sometimes 60, columns. The merest slip of the pen, an epithet 
too much, a wrong date, a name misspelt, or with a wrong initial 
before it, a mistake as to some obscure personage only too glad to 
seize the opportunity of showing himself, the misinterpretation of 
some passage perhaps incapable of interpretation, the most trifling 
offence to the personal or national susceptibility of those who do 
not even profess to care for the feelings of others, may prove not 
only disagreeable but even costly mistakes : but they are among 
the least to which an editor is liable. As it is impossible to say 
what a night may bring forth, and the most important intelligence 
is apt to be the latest, it will often find him with none to share his 
responsibility, his colleagues being either pre-engaged on other 
matters or no longer at hand. The editor must be on the spot 
till the paper is sent to the press, and make decisions on which 
not only the approval of the British public, but great events, and 
even great causes, may hang. All the more serious part of his 
duties has to be discharged at the end of a long day's work, a day 
of interruptions and conversations, of letter-reading and letter- 
writing, when mind and body are not what they were twelve hours 
ago, and wearied nature is putting in her gentle pleas. An editor 
cannot husband his strength for the night's battle by comparative 
repose in the solitude of a study or the freshness of green fields- 



In an Editors Chair. 8i 

He must see the world, converse with its foremost or busiest actors, 
be open to information, and on guard against error. All this- 
ought to be borne in mind by those who complain that journalism 
is not infallibly accurate, just, and agreeable. Their complaints 
are like those of the Court lord who found fault with the disagree- 
able necessities of warfare." How much indeed has happened 
since the days when Cowper wrote of 

" The folio of four pages, happy work, 
Which not e'en ciitics criticise." 

And even this is not a complete picture of an editor's toils and 
sufferings. Just as it is necessary for a paper to stand well with 
the general public, so is it important for its editor to stand well 
with his own intimate public — his private friends and the writers 
on his staff. How to reconcile their claims on his kindness and 
consideration with his duty to the world is often a difficult problem. 
His outside friends may be politicians or writers on whom his 
columns are bound to pass an unfavourable verdict ; while from 
a host of acquaintances, of both sexes, he receives daily, and is 
generally obliged to deny, the solicitations incessantly made to all 
who have anything to do with public opinion. And what tact is 
needed in such cases to give a denial, yet not to give offence ! Nor 
is it less difficult or less requisite for the editor to be on friendly 
working relations with his staff. Each one of these has a personality 

D 2 



82 'Journals and Journalism. 

of his own, an experience to which deference is due, and at the 
same time a political or a religious bias, which a wide acquaintance 
with the persojinel of the movements of the day only serves to 
emphasize. Yet often the editor must hurriedly set his assistant's 
deliberate judgment aside; and must always eliminate the merely 
personal feeling, and put public feeling in its stead, knowing, as has 
been well said, that, " great as is the audacity of inner consciousness 
in these days, its place is not in an editor's room." And this (though 
it seems paradoxical to say so) as regards the editor himself as 
. much as any member of his staff. For the good editor is the man 
who has the fewest hobbies, or having them, rides them least, and 
who is able to raise himself above the level of party passion and 
personal inclination, to direct the course of his journal as from a 
judge's bench for impartiality, as from a true statesman's standpoint 
for prescience and long-sighted precision. And as he is and ought 
to be impersonal in what he says, so he is and ought to be 
impersonal in his very way of saying it. Thus the editorial " we " 
is not only a more modest yet more dignified but also a more 
absolutely accurate pronoun than " I " for the leader-\\a-iter's use. 
This is still more obviously the fact when, as often happens, the 
writer, or the editor who inspires the writer, takes his cue not only 
from what his trained perception tells him is most right and politic 
{pace any little personal weaknesses of his own), but from actual con- 
sultation with his wisest colleagues, with the heads of his Par- 



In an Editor s Chair. 83 

liamentary party, and with all the best authorities at command. 
His " leader " is thus the pronouncement of the collective wisdom of 
a board of direction, and cannot without the absurdest confusion 
be classed with the opinion uttered at random by a man over his 
matutinal coffee or at his club— an opinion which he may change 
to-morrow, while that of a newspaper must never be recorded 
except after such deliberation as will allow it to be consistently 
maintained. 

When the Morning Chronicle was bought by Mr. Gladstone, the 
Duke of Newcastle, and Lord Herbert of Lea, to be placed in the 
hands of Mr. Cook (afterwards editor of the Saturday Review), and 
conducted from the unpopular platform of Puseyism in religion as 
well as Peelism in politics, not all their combined influence, ability, 
and capital, could prevent a decrease in circulation and an actual 
average loss of from ;^io,ooo to ;^i2,ooo a year. In 1854-—. 
according to Mr. Grant, a not infallible authority — they sold the 
paper to Serjeant Glover, agreeing to give him ^3,000 annually for 
three years on condition that he should continue to advocate the 
same principles — an arrangement, if really made, curiously at vari- 
ance with certain floating impressions as to supposed editorial free- 
dom from the restraining influences of capital ; and the Serjeant 
accepted a further subsidy from France to support the Napoleonic 
Idea. But the public would have none of it ; and the journal, 
whose " we " had been accepted during ninety years of broad and 



84 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

spirited management, was hurled into bankruptcy by becoming the 
organ of a clique. Used in a class journal, of course the " we " 
represents only a class, and is nevertheless legitimate — always sup- 
posing the journal does not pretend to be more than it is. But 
the great dailies and weeklies are much more than this, and must 
represent the thought of a multitude, not the whim of a unit ; 
and let us add our conviction that no editor or proprietor of such 
would ever pander to a popular feeling which he knew to be 
injurious to the welfare of the State. All this is what even a 
thoughtful writer like Emerson may fail to comprehend. " Was 
ever," he exclaims, " such arrogancy as the tone of The Times ? 
Every slip of an Oxonian or Cambridgian, who writes his first 
leader, assumes ' we ' subdued the earth before ' we ' sat down to 
Avrite this particular Times. One would think the world was on 
its knees to T/ie Times office for its daily breakfast. But the arro- 
gance is calculated. Who would care for it if it ' surmised,' or 
' dared to confess,' or * ventured to predict ' ? No ; it is so, and 
so it shall be." The idea of a " slip " of an undergraduate trying 
his 'prentice pen in the most important department of our most 
important paper — that of The Tivies leading articles — is sufficiently 
grotesque, and shows how very far the most intelligent alien is from 
understanding the seriousness and the solidity of our great 
national organs. 

All journalists, therefore, and everyone who has the best 



In an Editor s Chair. ^^ 

interests of journalism at heart, ought, we would earnestly urge, to 
deprecate any public attempt to associate a newspaper with its 
personnel in the sense of attacking writers by name for the anony- 
mous opinions which their newspaper expresses ; or of attacking a 
newspaper for the private shortcomings, real or supposed, of any 
individual member of its proprietary or staff. This kind of banter, 
which has become so much the fashion of late, may raise a momen- 
tary smile, but it must in the end be fatal to the liberty and 
prestige of the press, while it indefinitely increases that burden 
which already weighs too heavily on an editor, for whom, be it 
understood, we are claiming no licence to be untruthful, but only 
leave to be, in the exercise of duty, as impersonal as the barrister, 
the clergyman, the statesman, the monarch, the pontiff, and the 
judge. 

From all this it must be apparent that the qualifications of an 
editor are not only or chiefly of a literary order. He must be before 
all things a man of the world, conversant with many subjects, and 
able to get on well with his fellows, some of whom are also men of 
the world, and some of whom are not. Mr. Delane, for instance, 
never wrote in The Times, but he directed the policy of those who 
did, even down to the minutest particular, a habit which the following 
note very characteristically illustrates : — " My dear sir,— You may 
review— — , if you like, a most admirable book ; but before you do 
this please to write me a memoir, rather eulogistic than otherwise, but 



86 'Journals and Journalism. 

not puffing, of Sir William Mansfield, who, after resigning the chief 
command in India, has just been appointed to the chief command 
in Ireland.— Ever faithfully yours, M. T. Delane." Among weekly 
journals the Saturday Review has been issued for years together 
without an article from the editor's pen. 

Although what we have hitherto said about the troubles of 
editing, and the kind of capacity requisite to cope with them, 
applies principally to the daily and a portion of the weekly press, 
it holds good also of all editing, in a greater or a less degree. Even 
a monthly will not be successfully conducted by a litterateur^ 
however brilliant, unless with his literary ability he combines a 
faculty for business, a power to endure drudgery, and a variety of 
personal qualities not often met with in any one man. Coleridge, 
curiously enough, succeeded, as editor of the Morning Pos^, in 
greatly increasing its circulation ; but, as a rule, editors are made 
of sterner stuff. " I can find any number of men of genius to write 
for me, but very seldom one of common sense," an editor of The 
Times remarked to Moore. Without endorsing this saying in its 
hard, excessive brusquerie, we accept in a modified manner the 
truth it contains, and recommend it to the careful attention of 
amateurs, who must after all perceive that it is not easy to sit in 
that editorial chair which Campbell, Moore, Leigh Hunt, Carlyle, 
Lytton, Thackeray, Charles Dickens, George Sala, and Anthony 
Trollope were forced by one cause or another to abandon. 



A MISCELLANEOUS CHAPTER, 




picture, to lecture, 



E have somewhat strayed from the amateur^ 
to whom our first chapters were addressed, 
in the excursion we have made to the fields 
of professional life. Our excuse is that no 
amateur who is capable of taking regular 
rank will be content to remain an amateur — 
a fact which distinguishes literature from 
the other arts. A reluctance to sell a 
act, sing, or play for money is common 
enough in certain classes — or if such reluctance is wearing away 
a little shyness lingers when the market-matters of sale and pur- 
chase are in question. But no one ever has been, or ever 
will be, in any degree ashamed of pocketing a cheque for 
literary work, and the most hypersensitive have no fear of 
losing caste by selling the pure production of their brains. This 
is probably because no personal appearance or performance for 
money is involved, and also that no material vs, the subject of barter. 
Mr. Trollope may choose to call literature a trade ; nevertheless 
the litterateur is in no sense a tradesman. Besides all this, letters 



88 'Journals and "Journalism. 

are and will always remain altogether the noblest of the arts — the 
one art, perhaps, with which society could not by any possibility 
dispense — our very thinking in daily life having taken literary form, 
and some kind of reading being really as necessary to us as bread ; 
whereas a civilization deprived of music, painting, or the drama, 
is at least conceivable. No literary amateur, then, puts any limit 
before himself. He aims at a professional standing even when he 
does not intend literature to be his only profession ; and con- 
sequently there is not in this art the line of demarcation between 
the artist and the dilettante which exists in the others ; nor have 
we separated them in our survey. 

By no means exhaustive has been this review of one of the 
most distinctive developments of the modern worM. There are 
joys and sorrows, for instance, in the literary career, on which we 
have not touched. Of the former, one of the keenest is the 
sensation produced on the novice by his first success. Merely to 
see himself in print for the first time is a pleasure almost over- 
whelming, if only for the "promise that it closes." If that 
great event could fall flat, it would assuredly be a sign that his 
heart was not in his work ; that his work, consequently, was not 
worthy of him ; and that it behoved him to seek forthwith for 
some occupation which either would have power over his 
emotions, or in which emotion'would be altogether out of place. 
A success in tea, or in banking, or in conveyancing, will always 



A Miscellaneous Chapter. 89 

leave him master of himself; but he should let the arts alone, 
if he considers unbroken self-possession as a necessary part of his 
dignity. Charles Dickens, as we have already seen, does not 
hesitate to confess the happy tears with which he saw his first 
pubHshed words, and the nearer our beginner's experience comes 
to his, so much the more hope will there be that the career of the 
one may in some degree resemble that of the other. Out of the 
abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh, we are told ; and if 
the young writer have sent out words from the real abundance of 
his heart, he has merited the delight of seeing them winged for 
flight into the corners of the world. Nor will any art or any 
pursuit yield him a more just enjoyment, or a more lasting one ; 
it will not wear out at the fifth repetition, nor at the fiftieth, so 
long as his work is honest work ; his satisfaction will be calmer, 
indeed, but as solid as ever. 

We come to one of the sorrows of the career when we deplore 
that this moving, touching, thrilling moment of a first publication 
should so often be marred by a little matter which is enough to 
turn a triumph into a mortification. Everyone who has passed 
through the experience will know that we refer to the sore subject 
of misprints. The beginner is more liable than another to this 
form of disappointment and annoyance, because he generally 
sends in his tentative MS. to some comparatively obscure 
periodical, the printing department of which is not a model of 



9© 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

efficiency ; or because an editor may not think a casual contri- 
bution worth the trouble of a despatch of proofs. Amateur authors 
are largely to be blamed for the frequent neglect of this pre- 
caution and courtesy on the part of an editor; if they would 
more generally take the trouble to complete their work, finally 
and irrevocably, before sending it in — if, that is, they could be 
trusted to correct in proof the compositor's errors merely, and 
not to re-write and polish up their own sentences (which they 
should have done in the MS.), they would often have the security 
and satisfaction of receiving the coveted slips. Such afterthoughts 
of an author entail on an editor serious expense, which he cannot 
be blamed for avoiding. Yet it must be owned that misprints are 
intolerable. The absurdity of the errors — and they hardly ever 
fail of a poignant absurdity — the utter impotence of the unhappy 
writer, who has no means whatever of retrieving his character for 
common sense, or even sanity, are calculated to drive him to 
temporary despair. Feelingly does an anonymous (we believe a 
Transatlantic) bard sing the sorrows which embitter what would 
otherwise be a moment of entire glory : — 

ON SEEING MY FIRST POEM IN A NEWSPAPER. 



Ah ! here It is ! I'm famous now- 

An author and a poet ! 
It really is in print — ye gods, 

How proud I'll be to show it ! 



And gentle Anna— what a thrill 

Will animate her breast 
To read these ardent lines, and know 

To whom they are addressed. 



A Miscellaneous Chapter. 



9^ 



Why, bless my soul — here's something 
strange ! 

What can the paper mean 
By talking of the "graceful brooks 

That gander o'er the green ? " 
And here's a T instead of R, 

Which makes it " tippling rill ; " 
"We'll seek the shad," instead of shade, 

And "hell," instead of hill. 

" They look so " — what ? — I recollect 

'Twas " sweet," and then 'twas " kind." 
And now to think the stupid fool 
For bland has printed " blind." 
Was ever such provoking work ? — 

'Tis curious, by the bye, 
How anything is rendered blind 
By giving it an eye. 

"Hast thou no tears?" — the T's left 
out ; 

" Hast thou no ears ? " instead. 
" I hope that thou art dear" is put 

" I hope that thou art dead." 
Whoever saw in such a space 

So many blunders crammed ? 
" Those gentle eyes bedimmed " is spelt, 

"Those gentle eyes bedammed." 



" Thou art the same " is rendered 
" lame," 

It really is too bad ; 
And here, because an I is out. 

My " lovely maid " is " mad." 
" Where are the muses fed, that thou 

Shouldst live so long unsung ? " 
Thus read my version : here it is, 

" Shouldst live so long unhung. " 

I'll read no more. What shall I do? 

I'll never dare to send it. 
The paper 's scattered far and wide — 

'Tis now too late to mend it. 
Oh, Fame ! thou cheat of human bliss ! 

Why did I ever write ? 
I wish my poem had been burnt 

Before it saw the light. 

I wish I had that editor, 

About a half-a-minute, 
I'd bang him to my heart's content. 

And with an H begin it. 
I'd ja»! his body, eyes, and nose. 

And spell it with a D ; 
And send him to that A/ll of his — 

He spells it with an E. 



Nor is it the amateur alone who is familiar with this dismay. 
All through life the literary man is liable — often owing to a sloven- 
liness of handwriting — to be misprinted; and he will never like it, 
nor perhaps ever bear it with equanimity. He will find, too, 
that when he is misprinted it is generally in the very passages on 
which his affections were principally set, and his sensations, if 



9 2 'Journals ana Journalism. 

milder than those of the debutant, are far from pleasant. In all 
cases the mortification — more keen according to the inexperience 
of the victim — is sufficient to neutralize the pleasure— also more 
keen according to the freshness of the author — of an appearance 
in print. 

With these and many other joys and sorrows are responsibiUties 
to which we have little space to allude, but which bear a larger 
part in literary life than in perhaps any other career, not even 
excepting religion, medicine and statesmanship. And of the 
two branches of literature — authorship and journalism— the latter 
is assuredly the most heavily burdened. In one way only can the 
anonymous wielder of public power become worthy of his influence, 
and that is by letting conscience guide all the course of his pro- 
fessional hfe. Mere prudence will not avail to fit him for his post, 
which is, indeed, usually one of so great security, that prudence 
would be of itself a quite insufficient motive for honourable 
conduct. The priest must answer to visible powers, to his bishop 
and his people ; the physician to his patient ; the statesman to the 
nation ; but the anonymous journalist very frequently is responsible 
only to himself, and so much the more seriously will he feel the 
force of obligations for the breach of which he may never have to 
suffer; so much the more fine will become the' sensitiveness of 
his self-respect, so much the more active his sympathies. And 
while drawing this picture— ideal, perhaps, but happily also quite 



A Miscellaneous Chapter. 93 

real — we need not necessarily be included among those who 
declaim against personal journalism, so long as personality is 
inoifensive to any private feeling. Subject to that condition, it is 
legitimate enough, and all the more legitimate as it is inevitable. 
It is no new thing. A writer in a " Society " paper recently retorted 
to the stock charge of personality, that the daily Court Circular 
chronicles are far more intimately and intrusively personal than 
the information collected under the gossiping headings of the 
weeklies : for custom alone causes us to accept the announcement 
that her Majesty walked on the slopes, and that one maid of 
honour was succeeded by another, as a matter of any concern 
whatever to the general public. The censors of personal 
journalism generally assume that the persons or personages who 
are the subject of it are aggrieved by their own prominent 
appearance in print ; the journalist, however, knows that there is 
no such grievance felt, provided the gossip published is pleasant 
gossip — and no other kind should be allowed to appear. 
Another facile criticism consists in the charge of Americanism. 
We would, however, recommend a comparison between the 
chattiest of the decent London journals of this kind and their 
Transatlantic contemporaries. A glance will show that the 
difference is immeasurable ; that there is a twang about the 
American personalities which high-class English journalism of the 
kind has never caught. Apart from this, the press of the great 



94 'Journals and "Journalism. 

Republic has much that our own may imitate with advantage, and 
which is so imitated by some of the most successful of the English 
papers. The brightly-wTitten, readable, and non-political foreign 
correspondence which has sometimes appeared in the Daily 
Telegraph is an example of this. Let us remember that we are not 
altogether perfect, and that if the French press seems to us frivolous 
and the American flippant, ours is considered quite intolerably 
prosaic and heavy in Paris and New York. To amuse is an 
important function of the modern newspaper, and one which we 
hope will never be neglected ; for we believe there is hardly a single 
editor — we cannot tax our memory with one — -in England who 
would consciously allow his paper to be made the vehicle of private 
spite, though he might possibly be made the tool of a malicious 
contributor through ignorance or through one of those errors of 
judgment from which nobody is exempt, but which are visited 
more heavily on an editor than on anyone else. For the journalist's 
freedom from what is generally understood by responsibility docs 
not by any means belong to an editor — whose broad shoulders, 
indeed, are made to bear the burdens of his whole staff. 

It remains for those who are about to enter the profession to 
keep it as honourable and high-toned as it now is. If, from 
choice or necessity, they tread the quicksands of personal 
journalism, they must remember how Charles Dickens boiled over 
with indignation at what he considered to be an unwarranted 



A Miscellaneous Chapter, 95 

attack on a private reputation. "When I think," he writes to 
Macready, " that every dirty speck upon the fair face of the 
Almighty's creation who writes in a filthy, beastly newspaper; every 
rotten-hearted panderer who has been beaten, kicked, and rolled 
in the kennel, yet struts it in the editorial ' We ' once a week ; 
every vagabond that an honest man's gorge must rise at ; every 
living emetic in that noxious drug-shop, the press, can have his 
fling at such men and call them knaves and fools and thieves — I 
grow so vicious that with bearing hard upon my pen I break the 
nib down, and with keeping my teeth set make my jaws ache." 
These words — written in a moment of characteristic excitement 
and irritation, may hardly be a necessary warning to any of the 
beginners whom we address ; yet the temptation to " smart " 
scribbling is great ; and all who are liable to it should remember 
that personalities which would not be spoken out at a club are 
not to be printed in a newspaper. Nor do we grudge the great 
novelist his exaggeration in straining for effect, if that effect is 
produced on the minds of those in whose hands is the future of 
journalism for evil or good. Let them have always before them 
the words of another great and sensitive man. " Ah ! ye knights 
of the pen," exclaims Thackeray in the " Roundabout Papers," 
" may honour be your shield, and truth tip your lances ! Be gentle 
to all gentle people. Be modest to women. Be tender to chil- 
dren. And as for the ogre humbug, out sword, and have at him." 



96 "Journals and 'Journalism, 

Enough has been said in these pages to the new writer. That 
which is in want of encouragement — and it is a truism that 
merit is generally modest — will, we hope, find nothing to chill or 
dismay it in the frankest sincerity of what we have said ; nor that 
which requires suppressing, to give it false hopes. What we have 
written has been designed — we do not disguise it — for hindrance 
of some, as well as for help of others. For we have aimed at 
writing the truth only ; and the truth has this property, among 
many, that everyone will find in it what he most needs and can 
best assimilate. 




LITERARY COPYRIGHT. 

FEW words may here be said on the sub- 
ject of literary copyright, particularly in 
connection with the periodical press. The 
amateur who, compelled by some circum- 
stance or other, regretfully publishes in a 
magazine a composition out of which he 
believes a fortune might be made under 
happier auspices, may be glad to be 
assured that he does not lose all right over his work because it 
has been used by an editor, unless there is a special agreement 
to that effect. 

By 5 and 6 Victoria, Cap. 45, it is provided {inter alia) : — 

(i). That the copyright in every article in an encyclopedia, review, or other 
periodical, shall belong to the proprietor of that periodical for the same term 
{i.e. forty years) as is allowed by the act to authors of books, whenever such 
article shall be contributed on the terms that the copyright therein shall belong 
to such proprietor and be paid for by him. On that point it has been settled 
that the proprietor acquires no copyright till payment has actually been made. 

(2). After the term of twenty-eight years from the first publication of any 
article, the right of publishing the same in a separate form shall revert to the 

E 



98 'Journals and Journalism. 

author for the remainder of the term (of forty years) given by the act ; and 
during such term of twenty-eight years the proprietor shall not publish any 
such article separately without previously obtaining the author's consent. 

(3). Any author may reserve to himself the right to publish any such 
composition in a separate form, and he will then be entitled to the sole copy- 
right in the separate publication. 

Apart from the strict legal regulations on this matter, there is 
probably a recognised custom in the profession by which the copy- 
right in articles is considered to belong to the writer, in the 
absence of any express contrary stipulation, such as that, for 
instance, which Messrs. Cassell, Fetter, Galpin and Co. include 
in the printed receipt form sent out with all their payments for 
literary matter. It will be seen, however, that by the pro- 
visions of the Act above quoted, in all ordinary cases, even where 
he is the owner of the copyright, an editor cannot publish a con- 
tribution in a separate shape without the writer's consent, which 
may be withheld until it is worth his while to grant it. For 
example, in the case of Mayhew v. Maxwell the defendant was 
restrained from publishing in a separate form, without the plaintiffs 
permission, an article written by the plaintiff in a magazine called 
The Welcome Guest. 

Between author and publisher in regard to a volume, the 
arrangement as to copyright is more simple than that between 
author and editor. The composition simply changes hands. Yet 



Literary Copyright. gg 

even in selling out-and-out to a bookseller the copyright of a MS., its 
author may feel well assured that if its publication should prove a 
great and an unexpected pecuniary success, he will share in those 
profits, even though he has no legal claim to do so. Fifty instances 
of the kind could be brought up to show that publishers are not 
devoid of moral justness on such occasions. 

Mr. Carlyle once said to Charles Sumner, that " the strangest 
thing in the history of literature was his recent receipt of^j^so 
from America, on account of his ' French Revolution,' which had 
never yielded him a farthing in Europe, and probably never would." 
And, indeed, the new world furnishes a grand audience for all 
worthy and memorable English utterances. The Americans are 
eminently a reading people ; literature is cultivated among solitary 
New England farms in a manner that is foreign to the customs of 
Old England ; almost every village in the Northern States has its 
free public library and reading-room ; and some English books 
which are Uttle read at home are household words among the 
pastures of New Hampshire and Massachusetts. In fame and 
sympathy, then, America almost overpays our authors, but com- 
mercially the matter is notoriously otherwise, the absence of any 
satisfactory regulation as to international copyright leaving the 
remuneration of writers here, whose works are republished there, 
entirely to the chance benevolence of the American bookseller, 
who, naturally enough, does not care to pay much for a copyright 



100 'Journals and 'Journalism. 

which he cannot legally protect. Into the intricate English law of 
libel we do not propose to enter here. Suffice it to say that in any 
difficulty of the kind, or in any question of copyright, authors will 
find in Mr. George Lewis an adviser whose care, courtesy, and 
consideration are only equalled by his ability and the legal ex- 
perience he is known to have acquired in all matters relating to 
authorship and the press. 



TEN COMMANDMENTS : WITH REASONS AND 
REMARKS. 

OPY" (the technical name of MSS. sent to the 
press) mj/sf be ivriiten on only one side of the 
paper. This because the sheets are often 
divided among a body of printers to secure 
expedition or to keep all hands employed. 
Of course it is especially on a daily that copy 
is set into type in a hurry. If, for instance, the 
last speech of a Parliamentary debate arrive 
an hour before the paper goes to press, the sheets are cut cross- 
ways into shreds or " takes," so that simultaneous printing produces 
the whole in a few minutes. The rule, however, applies to all MSS., 
whether sent to a daily paper or a quarterly review. 

2. Write on sheets of paper which are neither small enough to be 
scrappy nor large enough to be cumbrous on the printer's case. 
No exact size can be mentioned as universally preferred by com- 
positors ; but the most convenient of all is perhaps foolscap quarto, 
which measures about seven inches by eight. A small post-octavo 




102 'Journals and ^Journalism, 

(about four inches by seven) and a large post-octavo (five inches 
by eight) are also popular sizes. 

3. Leave plenty of space in margins arid between lines for 
your own and editorial corrections. Then a whole page of MS. 
need not be recopied because a sentence is altered. Every line 
may have a correction if legibly made. 

4. Use white paper rather than blue; because the writing stands 
out more distinctly — an important consideration with the com- 
positor, who often works by gaslight. 

5. Use ink, and black ink — iox the same reason. Pencil- 
writing is fainter and generally smudges ; moreover it catches the 
light at certain angles, and becomes invisible to the printer, whose 
head, unless he stoops, is a couple of feet distant from his 
"copy." 

6. Write plainly. Distinct penmanship is an immense desidera- 
tum with both editor and printer. Excellent contributions have 
gone into the waste-paper basket because editors, always busy, 
have not time or patience to decipher hieroglyphics. It is true 
that not all established journalists write very readably— as some of 
the autographs scattered through these pages sufificiently show. 
In fact, much rapid writing, as Lord Lytton somewhere says, 
destroys even a beautiful hand. But in the case of a professional, 
on the staff of a paper, his contributions are frequently never read 
by the editor until they are in type, and the burden of the bad 



Ten Commandments. 103 

writing falls on the compositor alone ; the amateur, however, will 
certainly feel the disadvantage of writing an illegible hand. 
Above all, write proper names and technical phrases in characters 
as clear as print. A compositor deciphers cleverly and almost 
instinctively where the words are those in ordinary use; but 
where they are out of the common run, of course he can only 
guess at them, and goes proverbially wide of the mark. 

7. Number your pages of MS. 

8. Write yourname and address in a comer of the first page, where 
it is sure to be seen, instead of on the back of a sheet, or in an 
accompanying letter where it is more likely than not to be over- 
looked or lost. 

9. Be pwidual. A remembrance of this trite admonition will 
often stand a journalist in good stead. A man of mediocre talent 
who always sends his copy in at the right time is worth more to an 
editor than a genius who cannot be depended on. A few hints 
about sending-in days may not be amiss. Weeklies generally 
require latest copy at least two days before they are published, and 
almost without exception they are published a day or two earlier 
than the date they bear. Saturday's Pu7ich is a Wednesday 
institution ; Wednesday's World is read on Tuesday afternoon ; 
just as the evening papers are on the railway stalls when we over- 
sleep a little in the morning. The World, for example, goes to press 
on Monday night to be ready for actual publication on Tuesday 



1 04 'Journals and "Journalism. 

afternoon ; and though down to Monday night it is possible to 
insert anything of special importance, the standing rule is that 
copy shall reach the editor on Saturday morning, or, failing that, 
be posted by members of the staff straight to the printer not later 
than Sunday night. Again, the Graphic goes to press in two parts 
— that which contains the story and standing articles earUer in the 
week than that which is devoted to current comment and to news. 
Obviously, a contribution loses half its chance of insertion when 
probably more than enough copy to fill the whole paper has been 
already sent in. Even some of the monthly magazines, less con- 
cerned than the weeklies with passing affairs, are prepared for the 
press a fortnight or more before they are published. Contributions, 
for instance, to one of Messrs. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin's monthlies 
for April will sometimes be asked for by even the first of February; 
and the principal contents of Good Words are arranged nearly a 
year in advance. Stories for Christmas numbers are ordered in 
the height of summer ; and verses apostrophizing snow are com- 
posed with the thermometer at 80 deg. ; just as Hogarth's poet 
indited an ode to riches while his wife was dunned for the milk- 
score. This will account to the beginner for many vexatious 
editorial delays and refusals, and will impress on him the necessity 
of taking time by the forelock when sending his contributions to 
the press. 

10. Mark the ^^ proofs " of any accepted contribution sent for 



^'Ten Commandments. 



105 



correction according to the technical system, which avoids endless 
confusion, and which every compositor understands. The 
publishers have added an advertisement sheet at the end of 
this book which sets forth this professional method of correcting 
for the press. 





£ 2 



A DICTIONARY OF THE PERIODICAL PRESS. 




OR the benefit of beginners, we append the 
names and addresses of some of the 
leading periodical publications, with a 
slight sketch of their character and scope. 
The list makes no pretension to be com- 
plete; for, while it embraces the leading 
journals and magazines of general interest 
— not forgetting even those less ambitious 
but widely-circulated issues to which we referred while insisting 
that the amateur must not shrink from a humble beginning — our 
narrow space necessarily excludes notice of either the provincial 
press, or of organs devoted to the special interests of this or that 
trade, society, or sect ; though on these there are thousands of 
pens perennially and profitably at work. In the interest of the 
general reader, as well as of the amateur, we have, in some 
instances, added a few historical details about the publications 
named, taking conscientious care, however, that in so doing we 
wound no sensibility and betray no trust. In cases where 
personal allusion is made to editors, either their names have 



A 'Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 107 

already been publicly associated, in Men of the Time or else- 
where, with the papers they conduct, or are in all men's mouths 
in that connexion, or else they are used by a permission, for 
which, as well as for all other help and kindness afforded to 
us by individuals, or by publications, in the compilation of this 
little book, we here beg to express our cordial thanks. 



Academy (52, Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn ; Weekly, 3d.), established in 1869 
as a literary, artistic and scientific review, differing from the Athenatim, 
which it otherwise too closely resembles, by special prominence given to science, 
and by the rule that its pritical notices be signed by the writers. Whether 
this system produces criticism that is more responsible and influential than 
anonymous writing need not be discussed here, but it has at any rate served to 
show that the Academy possesses a brilliant and learned staff. This staff was 
ably directed for some years by Dr. Aj^pleton, whose death in 1879 cut short 
a promising career. 

After IVork (62, Paternoster Row ; Monthly, id.), an illustrated journal for 
the working classes. 

All the Year Round (26, Wellington Street, Strand ; Monthly, gd. ; Weekly, 
2d.), a magazine of general literature and social politics. Established in 1859 by 
Charles Dickens upon the disruption of his connection with Messrs. 
Bradbury and Evans, the publishers of Household Words, which the 
novelist had till then conducted. His separation from his wife had occurred 
shortly before, and, though an entirely private matter, had given rise to much 
public talk. Two ladies in particular had set afloat some false rumours 
reflecting on Charles Dickens' domestic character. In answer to these widely- 



io8 'Journals and Journalism. 

spread but idle accusations he resolved to make public a kind of manifesto headed 
"Personal," which duly appeared on the first page of his periodical, 
Household Words : and he requested Messrs. Bradbury and Evans to print a 
duplicate on the back of Punch, of which they were also the publishers. 
Those gentlemen declined on the ground of good taste, alleging that a comic 
journal was not the proper medium for explanations of a grave and delicate 
nature. From this difference of opinion resulted a separation between 
author and publishers ; the former established All the Year Round, and the 
latter Once a Week, upon the ruins of Household Words. Charles Dickens' 
journal became a noted feature of the periodical press; it was conducted with 
rare liberality towards the claims of unknown aspirants, in whose contributions 
the conductor seemed to take a warm personal interest. The younger Charles 
Dickens ably edits the journal now. 

Anglo-American Publications : — I. American Traveller (4, Langham Place, 
W; Weekly, id.), a literary, political and social newspaper, established 
1874, and "devoted to the interests of Americans abroad." 2. Anglo- 
A>?ierican Times (127, Strand; Weekly, 4d.), established 1865; conducted 
on neutral principles, gives special attention to the American news of the 
week. 3. Atlantic Monthly (57, Ludgate Hill; Monthly, is.), an excellent 
magazine of literature, science, art and politics. Excellent magazines also 
are Harper's, Scribner''s and Lippincott's, both of which circulate largely this 
side of the Atlantic. 

Anglo-Colonial and Anglo -European Publications : — I. British Mail (40, 
Chancery Lane ; Monthly, 2s.) 1. European Mail (Colonial Buildings, 
Cannon Street, E.C. ; price varies according to the quarter of the world to 
which it is sent). 3. Foreign Times {13, Sherborne Lane, E.C. ; Fort- 
nightly, 2d.) 4. Zi^o/«£iVfi£/^ (55, Parliament Street, S.W.) 5. Overland Mail 
(65, Comhill, E.C. ; Weekly, 6d.) 

Animal World (9, Paternoster Row ; Monthly, 2d.) Illustrated ; the advo- 
cate of kindness to animals. 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 109 

Antiquary {62, Paternoster Row; Monthly, is.), a magazine " devoted to 
the study of the past," and edited by Mr. ^ 
Edward Walford, author of " Old and New ^yCt/'ft^'''C^V^'t^ 

London " and a number of other well-known ^ S- - 

works, in whose hands it has become one of 

the most successful of the periodicals having 1880 for the year of their birth. 

Architectural and Building Journals : — i. Architect (i^S, Strand ; Weekly, 
4d.), established 1869. A model technical paper. It contains articles of 
general as well as professional interest, especially on artistic and sanitary sub- 
jects. So do (2) the British Architect and Northern Engineer (35, Bouverie 
Street, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 4d.), established 1874; (3) the Builder (46, 
Catherine Street, Strand ; Weekly, 4d.), established 1842; (4) the Building 
News (31, Tavistock Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 4d.), established 1854; and (5) 
the Building World (31, Southampton Street, Strand; Monthly, 3d.), 
established 1877. 

Argosy (8, New Burlington Street ; Monthly, 6d.), an illustrated magazine 
of tales, travels, essays, and verses, conducted by Mrs. Henry Wood, with the 
assistance of her son, Mr. Charles W. Wood. 

Artist [iS^, Fleet Street; Monthly, 4d.), is the only newspaper of the art 
world published, and a very good one too. 

A7-t Journal (26, Ivy Lane ; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), an illustrated magazine 
founded by and inseparably connected with the name and perhaps too amiable 
character of Mr. Samuel Carter Hall, who, as journalist, author, and editor, has 
a literary history that goes back almost as far as the century. Art is in a 
flourishing state, at any rate pecuniarily, in England now, the artist's remunera- 
tion being of a more adequate nature >»■ 
than that which falls to the lot of his yi^X^ ^^^y>y^ 
literary brother ; and it is undoubtedly /p^X ^^ /*^ ^^^C 
to the modern writers on art in general 
and to Mr. Hall in particular that the artist of to-day owes the appreciation 



1 1 o Journals and 'Journalism. 

of a wide public. When will art return the compliment, and give us 
representations of distressed authors which will harrow the hearts of 
editors and publishers, and unloose their purse-strings ? Mr. Hall has recently 
vacated the editorial chair at the office of the Art Journal, where his place is 
taken by Mr. Marcus Huish, who, though young, has already made a position 
in the world of literature and art. 

^r^, il/a^^32«£ £?/ (Cassell, Fetter, Galpin and Co., Ludgate Hill, E.G.; 
Monthly, 7d.), established in 1878, and has already attained the wide 
popularity justly attaching to publications which are cheap but not nasty, 
light but not trivial, instructive but never dull. The scope of the magazine is 
indicated by its title, the editor excluding from his pages all topics except 
those directly connected with the Fine and the Industrial Arts. 

AthencEum (20, Wellington Street, Strand ; Weekly, 3d.), a journal of 
literature, science, art, music, and the drama, founded in 1828 by James Silk 
Buckingham ; soon became the property of Charles Wentworth Dilke, father of 
the first and grandfather of the present baronet of that name. His talent as an 
editor and a critic raised the paper to the position it now holds as the leading 

weekly organ of the literary world — 
its verdict on any book under notice 
isj^ carrying weight not only with every 
bookseller and librarian in England, but 
also with the publishers and readers of the new world. The present Under 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs succeeded his father in the proprietorship of the 
AthencEutn, and he also owns Notes and Queries and a great part of the Gar- 
dener's Chronicle and of the Agricultural Gazette. A man of marked literary 
ability, he is understood to have at onetime edited the Athenaum himself; 
but that task, which requires so much judgment and tact, now devolves on 
another. Hepworth Dixon was editor from 1853 to 1869. 

Baptist Publications :— I. Baptist (61, Paternoster Row, E.G. ; Weekly, id.) 
2. Freeman (21, Castle Slreet, Holborn ; Weekly, id.) 



Uu^^^^ 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 1 1 1 

Bazaar, Exchange and Mart (170, Strand; Wednesday and Saturday, 2d.), 
an illustrated and admirably arranged medium for the exchange and sale of 
personal property by private persons. Also contains articles and information 
on practical and household subjects. Its proprietors are the representatives of 
the late Serjeant Cox. 

Belgravia Magazine (214, Piccadilly, W. ; Monthly, is.), established in 1866, 
and edited for some time by Miss Braddon, from whose hands it passed a few 
years ago into those of Messrs. Chatto and Windus, who have made it a very 
bright miscellany of light literature. 

Biograph (12, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden ; Monthly, is.), a magazine 
almost entirely taken up with the biographies, some of them very careful and 
exhaustive, of persons eminent in every kind of career. Established in 1879, 
and edited by Guy Roslyn. 

Blackzoood' s Edinburgh Magazine (37, Paternoster Row, E.G. ; Monthly, 
2S. 6d.), during the sixty-three years of its existence has perhaps published a 
larger number of brilliant contributions than any other periodical of the kind. 
A list of those who have written in its pages would be an enumeration of nearly 
all the names celebrated in literature during the last half-century. Blackwood 
gives not only tales, poems, social and literary essays, but also striking 
political articles, with a strong Conservative bias, in spite of which, however, it 
scathingly criticised " Lothair. " 

Boto Bells (315, Strand; Weekly, id.) is described as a family magazine of 
light literature, fiction, fashion, &c. Messrs. John Dicks and George 
William Reynolds are the proprietors. 

Brief {^1, Great Queen Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 2d.), an epitome of the 
press, resembling Public Opinion but more succinct both in its quotations and 
in its original matter, first issued by Messrs. Wyman and Sons, the great 
printers, in 1877. Brief'is intended for those readers who have no time for the 
wordiness of the modern press. 



112 'Journals and 'Journalism, 

British Quarterly Review (27, Paternoster Row; Quarterly, 6s.), .1 
political and critical review, established in 1844, and ably conducted upon 
Liberal principles, the present head of the Liberal party having himself recently 
contributed to its pages an interesting paper upon the Evangelical origin of the 
Romeward movement. 

CasseWs Family Magazine (Ludgate Hill, E.C. ; Monthly, 7d.), a popular 
collection of social and domestic sketches, novels, stories, essays and poems. 
This periodical, like others issued by the same firm, bears the marks of the 
collective wisdom of the editorial board of general direction which exists in La 
Belle Sauvage Yard, as well as of the individual care of the one editor who 
has it under his especial charge. This system works well ; for the principle 
that two heads are better than one is never more applicable than to the conduct of 
a magazine ; and the board of general direction, which aids each editor where 
he requires it, includes not only men of wide literary experience and keen 
judgment, but men of commerce also, and the two together succeed in pro- 
ducing publications which are at once literary and commercial successes. 
By the editors of Messrs. Cassell, Fetter and Galpin's magazines communi- 
cations from outsiders always receive the attention they deserve. 

Catholic (Roman) Publications: — I. Catholic Fireside (83, Fleet Street; 
Monthly, 2d.), an illustrated magazine of popular literature, taking the place 
among Catholics which is held among Protestants by the Sunday at Home and 
the Leisure Hour, only with a little less of the religious element; edited by the 
Rev. Father Nugent, the well-known Catholic Chaplain of the Liverpool 
Borough Gaol. 2. Catholic Progress (17, Portman Street, W. ; Monthly, 3d.), 
edited by the Rev. Albany J. Christie, M.A., an Oxford convert, and a member 
of the Jesuit community attached to the church in Farm Street, Grosvenor 
Square. 3. Catholic Times (83, Fleet Street, and at Liverpool, where, like the 
Catholic Fireside, it is printed at the Boys' Refuge, founded by Father Nugent, 
the proprietor of the paper; Weekly, id.) 4. Dublin Review (17, Port- 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 113 

man Street, London, W. ; Quarterly, 6s.) has contained much memorable 
writing since its early days, when one of its editors, Cardinal "Wiseman, 
contributed to its pages articles which were eagerly read at Oxford by an 
embryo cardinal even greater than he, then vicar of St. Mary the Virgin in 
the University city. Dr. W. G. Ward, another eminent Oxford convert to 
Catholicism, subsequently edited the Diiblin, but on extreme lines, which were 
not popular with the bulk of his co-religionists, and he made a timely retire- 
ment from the editorial chair (whence he had spoken as if ex cathedra to those 
who shared his Ultramontane sjmipathies) at the very moment when the liberal- 
minded Leo XIII. succeeded Pius IX. in the chair of Peter. Bishop Hedley, 
an able writer and clear thinker, has since then conducted the Dublin, at the 
head of a staff which includes nearly all the literary talent with an ecclesias- 
tical bias to be found in his communion. 5. Irish Monthly (17, Portman 
Street, W. ; Monthly, 6d.), a bright magazine of general literature, which, 
edited by the Rev. Father Matthew Russell, S.J. (brother of Mr. Charles 
Russell, Q.C.,M.P.),and largely contributed toby Miss Rosa Mulholland, who 
successfully tried her novice hand as a novelist under Charles Dickens in All 
the Year Eotaid, circulates among the Catholics of England in spite of the 
green cover which is symbolic of its Hibernian spirit and name. 6. Lattip (47, 
Fetter Lane, E.C. ; Weekly, id.), an illustrated miscellany of popular serial 
and short stories, essays, and verse ; the property of an Oxford convert, the 
Rev. Father William Lockhart, of the Order of Charity, a member of a family 
that has given a great name to English literature in the biographer of Sir 
Walter Scott and the editor of the Qua?-terly. 7. The Month (17, Portman 
Street, W. ; 2s.), founded in 1863, and edited by the Rev. Father Coleridge, 
S.J. (brother of the Judge), one of the ablest writers and preachers of his 
church. 8. The Tablet (27, Wellington Street, Strand ; Weekly, Sd.), 
founded in 1840, and connected in its early history with the name of the late 
Frederic Lucas, M.P., one of the few men who have taken the long leap from 



114 'Journals and 'Journalism* 

Quakerism to the Catholic Church. The Tablet is now ably edited and sub- 
edited by Oxford converts, one of whom was formerly a clergyman, and it 
may be fairly described as a Catholic (and Conservative) counterpart of the 
Spectator. 9. Weekly Register {\a,, Catherine Street, Strand; Weekly, 4d.), 
founded in 1849, the late Mr. Henry William Wilberforce, youngest son of 
the great anti-slavery reformer, being its proprietor and editor from 1 854 to 
1863,— "in this, as in all his undertakings" (says his friend, Cardinal 
Newman), " actuated by an earnest desire to promote the interests of religion, 
though at the sacrifice of his own." The Register has changed hands several 
times since then, being now in great part the property of Mr. De Lacy Towle. 
In some respects a Catholic counterpart of The Guardian, the Register is 
now edited by a journalist and author of long standing and distinction. 

Chambers^ Journal (47, Paternoster Row ; Monthly, 7d.) has been cele* 
brated for the popular and instructive character of its essays and tales for 
nearly half a century. 

Charing Cross Magazine (S, Friar Street, Broadway, E.G. ; Monthly, 6d,), 
of miscellaneous literature. Established in 1872. 

Church of England Publications :— i. Church Bells (Paternoster Buildings, 
E.C.; Weekly, id.) 2. Church Review (ll, Burleigh Street, W.C. ; 
Weekly, id.) 3. Church Tifnes (32, Little Queen Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 
Id.) The two latter are strong party newspapers, with Ritualistic views. 4. 
Church and State (Friar Street, Broadway, E.G.; Weekly, id.). Church of 
England articles, stories, essays, and reviews. 5. Church Sunday School 
Magazine (34, New Bridge Street, E.C. ; Monthly, 4d.), for Sunday school 
teachers. 6. Churchman's Companion (78, New Bond Street ; Monthly, 6d.), 
High Church ; essays, reviews, and tales. Established in 1847. 7. Church- 
man's Shilling Magazine and Family Treasury (T, Paternoster Buildings, E.C. ; 
Monthly, is.), religious articles, verses, reviews, &c. 8. Church Quarterly 
Review (New Street Square, E.C; 6s.) 9. Ecclesiastical Gazette (13, Charing 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 115 






Cross, S.W. J Monthly, 6d. ; sent gratuitously to the leading clergy). lo. 
English Churchman (2, Tavistock Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 3d.) II. Friendly 
Leaves (187, Piccadilly ; Monthly, id.), illustrated magazine for working 
girls. 12. Guardian (5, Burleigh Street, Strand; Wednesday, 6d.), was es- 
tablished in 1846 by several Oxford 
men. The story of the Guardian 
— its early struggles, the brilliance 
of its staff, the service it has done 
to high Anglicanism and to political Liberalism, the distinctions won by its 
proprietors — will, when written, be one of the most interesting, if not romantic, 
chapters in a detailed history of journals and journalism. An organ of which 
any party may be proud, the Guardian is also read by outsiders, who appreciate 
its excellent foreign correspondence, its carefully-arranged summary of news, 
and, above all, its notices of books, which are among the very best that 
appear. Mr. Sharp is the most successful of editors, and he evidently has a 
sub-editor who is worthy of his chief. 13. John Bull [6, Whitefriars Street, 
E.G. ; Weekly, 5d.), avowedly set on foot in 1820 with the object of assail- 
ing Queen Caroline and those who espoused her cause. " On the subject of 
this sickening woman," politely remarked yij/^w Bull'xa. an early number, "we 
shall enter into no arguments or discussions, because they go for nothing at 
this period of her adventures." The law of libel was soon made unpleasantly 
familiar to the registered printers and proprietors of the lively paper, which 
was edited by Theodore Hook. He, however, disliked to be known as the 
editor, and even wrote a letter to his own columns disavowing his connexion 
with the paper, and at the same time published an editorial paragraph calling 
attention to the disavowal, and sneering unmercifully at himself. The success 
oi John Bull v{z.s extraordinary, its circulation amounting to 10,000 in the 
sixth week of its publication. On the death of Queen Carohne in 1821, the 
occupation of the paper was gone ; and it subsequently changed its character 



1 1 6 'Journals and Journalism. 

so far as to become, what it now is, a Church of England newspaper, 14. 
Literary Churchman (163, Piccadilly, W. ; Fortnightly, 4d.), reviews of 
books and articles on Church topics; high intone. 15. Monthly Packet of 
Evening Readings {6, Va.\.e.xnositt Ro-vi ; is.), High Church magazine of reli- 
gious and general reading. i6. Parish Magazine (2, Paternoster Building?, 
E.C. ; Monthl)^ id.). Church of England family magazine, localized in several 
places. 17. Record (i. Red Lion Court, Fleet Street ; Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 2jd.), an Evangelical journal which was once, strange to say, 
contributed to by his Eminence Cardinal Newman. Hence the Record dates 
back into the dim past, having been born in 1828, five years before there was 
any Oxford Movement to vex its soul. 18. Rock (Southampton Street, W.C. ; 
Weekly, id.), a Low Church journal ; formerly belonged to Mr. Colling- 
ridge, but recently changed hands, and has lost in the transfer some of its 
old spice. 

Colburn's New Monthly 3/agazi»e 
(11, Ave Maria Lane, E.C. ; Monthly, 
2s. 6d.), essays, reviews, &c. Edited 
by Guy Roslyn. 

Contemporary Revie-u {^^, Faternostei Row ; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), established 
in 1866, and was edited for some time by Dean Alford ; his place was taken 
in 1870 by Mr. James Knowles, whose connection with the magazine ceased 
seven years later. The conduct of the Contemporary, which is admirably 
arranged with a view to representing all shades of religious, political, and 
philosophical opinion, has since been undertaken in great part by Mr. Alex- 
ander Strahan, its publisher and proprietor. 

Cornhill Magazine (15, Waterloo Place, S.W. ; Monthly, is.), an illus- 
trated miscellaneous magazine, started in i860, under Thackeray's editorship, 
with brilliant success. It was able, being almost unique of its kind at the time, 
to command the foremost pens and pencils of all England. Thackeray himself. 




Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 117 

John Ruskin, George Eliot, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Matthew Arnold, 
Anthony Trollope, and Mrs. Gaskell, were among the writers, whose works were 
illustrated by Millais, Leighton, Fred Walker, Doyle, Du Maurier. Of the 
first number over 110,000 were sold. In its pages have appeared from time to 
time several of the classical novels of the day, and some of the best essays. 
Under the conduct of Mr. Leslie Stephen, the son-in-law oftha»first editor, the 
magazine has kept up its old prestige, with the addition, perhaps, of a little more 
cultivation of modern "restheticism. " Thackeray's tradition of liberality has 
been followed uniformly in the CornhilCs dealings with its contributors. 

Country and Sporting Publications ; — I. Agricultural Eco7tomist{arT, Mill- 
bank Street, Westminster ; Weekly, 6d.) 2. Bell's Life in London (9, Catherine 
Street, Strand ; Weekly, 4d.) 3. BelPs Weekly Messenger (26, Catherine 
Street, Strand; Weekly, 6d.) 4. C(?««^;j (170, Strand; Weekly, 3d.) 5. 
Country Gentleman'' s Magazine {13A, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street ; Monthly, 
IS.) 6. Farmer (13A, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 5d.) 7. 
Field (346, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.), established in 1864 ; one of the fine news- 
paper properties which Serjeant Cox left behind him. 8. Fishing Gazette 
(II, Ave Maria Lane, E.C. ; Weekly, 2d.) 9. Floral Magazine (5, Henri- 
etta Street, W.C; Monthly, 3s. 6d.) 10. Floral World (Groombridge and 
Sons, Paternoster Row; Monthly, 6d.) 11. Garden (37, Southampton 
Street, W.C; Weekly, 6d.) 12. Gardener (37, Paternoster Row ; Monthly, 
6d.) 13. Gardeners Chronicle (41, Wellington Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 5d.) 
14. Gardenei^s Magazine (ll, Ave Maria Lane, E.G.; Weekly, 2d.) 15. 
Horticultural Recoi-d (;^l'j. Strand ; Weekly, id.) 16. Illustrated Sporting 
and Dramatic News (148, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.), founded in 1873, and 
belonged at one time to Mr. Ingram, of the Illustrated London A^ews. 17. 
Journal of Horticulture (171, Fleet Street; Weekly, 3d.) 18. Land and 
Water (176, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 6d.), an entertaining paper, the fishing 
and natural history department of which is conducted by Mr. Frank Buckland. 



1 1 8 'Journals and Journalism, 

19. Magnet (19, Exeter Street, W.C; Weekly, s^d.) 20. Referee (17, 
Wine Office Court, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.), an exceedingly smartly 
written journal of sport, politics, and the drama. 21. Sporting Gazette and 
Agricultural Journal (135, Strand; Weekly, 4d.), started in 1862; contains 
portraits of sporting celebrities. 22. Sporting Life (148, Fleet Street ; Wednes- 
day and Saturday, id.) 23. Sporting Opinion (61, Fleet Street ; Monday, id.) 
24. Sporting Times (52, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 2d.) 25. Sportsman (Boy 
Court, Ludgate Hill ; on Saturday, 3d.; on other days, 2d.) 

Court Circular (2, Southampton Street, Strand ; Weekly, 5d.), was started 
in 1856, as a rival of the Court Journal. Its first editor was Mr, H. Prender- 
gast ; and a little more than ten years after its first appearance it was sold to 
Mr. Edward Walford, who, after editing it for a short time, re-sold it to Mr. 
W. H. Stephens. 

Court Journal (36, Tavistock Street, W.C; Weekly, 5d.), an occasion- 
ally illustrated record of Court and fashion, which has existed since 1829. 

Daily Chronicle (Salisbury Square, Fleet Street ; id.) This paper was 
established as the Clerkenwell News in 1855, vmder which title it was con- 
tinued until Mr. Lloyd (of Lloyd's Weekly News) purchased it, and issued it 
daily under its new designation, no longer as a local organ, but as a Liberal 
paper for the public in general. The success attending the transition has been 
great, and Mr. Lloyd has now two fine newspaper properties instead of one. 

Daily News (Bouverie Street, E.C. ; Daily, id.) had the distinction of 
being introduced to the world, in 1846, by Charles Dickens as its first editor. 
Among its proprietors were Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, Sir William 
Jackson, M.P., Sir Joseph Paxton, and Sir Joshua Walmsley ; its manager 
was Mr. Charles Wentworth Dilke, the member for Chelsea's grandfather ; 
and among its prominent writers — who were all very handsomely remunerated 
— were John Forster, Harriet Martineau (one of the very few ladies who 
have written political leaders), and Mr. M'Cullagh Torrens, Finsbury's M.P. 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 119 

Charles Dickens did not make a good editor for a daily, and the chair he 

vacated after an occupancy of only a few months was subsequently filled by 

John Forster, and then by Knight Hunt, author of " The Fourth Estate." 

During the first years of its existence the Daily News was published at great 

pecuniary sacrifice — successive changes in its price from 5d. to 2^d., from 2^d. 

to 3d., and back again to 5d. proving ineffectual to transform losses into 

profits. As a penny paper the Daily News has found its right field, and 

fulfilled its mission ; it is now not only a literary but also a commercial 

success. Its circulation is known to have largely increased since the General 

Election, political papers being always benefited by their own party's tenure 

of power. The present editor, Mr. Frank Harrison Hill, was formerly a 

leader-writer on its staff, and is well-known as a political writer. Mr. J. R. 

Robinson may claim to share with Mr. 

Hill the credit attaching to the conduct of J^^,-^ ^f^~) r-> ^ 

the Daily News; for it is largely to his (^y^^^'c^><Oy^^^^^'^'^^'^ 

great qualities as a manager that the 

prestige of the paper is due. He it is who has gathered men like 

Archibald Forbes (whose accompanying 

autograph the reader may well imagine /]. r— \ * 

to have been penned amid the heat and '-^f -C ^ wl/VXC'"'-^ 

hurry of a battle) and W. H. Lucy -^ 

(who writes the Parliamentary summary for its columns) round the office in 
Bouverie Street. Among the present pro- 
prietors of the Daily News are Sir Charles Hh-'Z^r-'^ 
Reed, Mr. Samuel Morley, and Mr. Labou- ^v ^"^^ '■^^^■^^^■^ 
chere, the latter being the Besieged Resident 

who contributed to its columns a graphic account of Paris during the 
Commune. 

Daily Telegraph (135, Fleet Street ; Daily, id.), started in 1855 by Colonel 



120 'Journals and 'Journaltsm. 

Sleigh, who had the bad luck which is almost the rule in the case of the 
founders of new papers. After running the Daily Telegraph and Courier (as 
it was then called) at only twopence (an unprecedented price in those days) 
until he could run it no longer, the Colonel resigned it into the hands of Mr. 
Levy, one of his creditors. It is said to have been a toss up with Mr. Levy 
whether he should take the paper — a toss up, that is, whether he would or would 
not make himself the master of a magnificent fortune. For the Telegraph pros- 
pered under new management. The advertisements in its columns then 
brought in a daily revenue of 7/6, but now they bring, according to Mr. Grant, 
a sum of about ^^500 ; and the literary scope and excellence of the paper has 
increased in like proportion. One of Mr. Levy's early acts was to halve the 
price of the Telegraph, which made a sensation by supplying for a penny a 
double sheet similar to that for which the Times charged fourpence. The 
abolition of the paper duty added to the profits of the new daily many thousands 
of pounds a year, and also enabled the proprietors to print on better material 
than before. The circulation of the Telegraph is the largest in the world ; its 

social, chatty articles giving it a charm 
for the general reader. Largely con- 
tributed to by the king of journalists, Mr. 
George Augustus Sala, the Telegraph is 
conducted by Mr. Edward L. Lawson, aided by Mr. Edwin Arnold, C.S.I., 
and a well organized staff. 

Day of Rest (34, Paternoster Row, E.G. ; Monthly, 6d.), general literature 
for Sunday reading. Describes itself as " Unsectarian, " a term which, in the 
case of several publications (perhaps the Day of Rest \% one of them), would 
often mislead High Anglicans or Catholics who supposed it meant toleration 
for any theology which was not either Low or Broad. 

Echo (22, Catherine Street, W.C. ; Evening,; ^d.), founded by Messrs. 
Cassell, Fetter & Galpin in 1868, edited by Mr. Arthur Arnold, now member 



ow; ^^w^ 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 1 2 1 

for Salford, and sub-edited by Mr. G. Barnett Smith, an able and industrious 
litterateur. Mr. J. Passmore Edwards, M.P., now owns the Echo and edits it 
with verve. 

Economist (340, Strand, W.C. ; Weekly, 3d.), a journal of commerce, 
mining, political economy, &c., established in 1843. 

Edinburgh Review (39, Paternoster Row; Quarterly, 6s.), established in 1802, 
under circumstances which everyone remembers. Jeffrey, Brougham, Macaulay, 
had talent enough between them to produce a publication that was striking and 
readable enough in its day, though the absence of current interest makes a 
perusal of the great bulk of its articles in the old numbers a trifle tedious 
now. How Brougham was jealous of all his fellow contributors, especially 
disliking Macaulay, whom he called the biggest bore in London, and how 
Macaulay reciprocated the hostile feeling, is all told in the correspondence of 
Macvey Napier, editor of the Edinburgh for many years, and is not one of 
the pleasantest chapters in literary history. In this quarterly, as in its great 
Tory rival, the articles are always headed by the title of a book, or of a number 
of books ; but one occasionally suspects that one is really perusing an original 
essay, rather than a review. In fact, Macaulay owned that he ignored his 
author when, in devoting a hundred pages of the Edinburgh to what pur- 
ported to be a notice of the " Memoirs of the Life of Warren Hastings, 
by the Reverend G. R. Gleig," he introduced an eloquent disquisition on 
Indian history with the candid avowal, " We are inclined to think that we 
shall best meet the wishes of our readers if, instead of dwelling upon the 
faults of this book, we attempt to give our own view of the life and character 
of Mr. Hastings ; " nor does Mr. Gleig's name appear more than three times 
in the whole paper. The Edinburgh has been edited for nearly a quarter of 
a century by Mr. Henry Reeve, C.B., the eminent litterateur, to whom 
Charles Greville confided his celebrated "Journal" for publication. 

Educational Publications : — I. Educational Times {1, Gough Square, E.G. ; 

F 



1 2 2 'Journals and Journalism. 




^^P^tc/i-^-i^ 



Monthly, 6d.) 2, Scholastic World (i, Wine Office Court, Fleet Street ; 

Monthly, 2d.) 3. School Board Chronicle 

(72, TummillSt., E.G.; Weekly, 3d.), 

the organ of the School Boards, edited 

by Mr. R. Gowing, formerly editor of 

Gentleman^ s Magazine. 4. Schoolmaster (14, Red Lion Court ; Weekly, id.) 

Examiner (lid, Strand; Weekly, 3d.) has a notable history, both literary 

and political, which dates back nearly to the beginning of the century. When 

Leigh Hunt edited the paper, Byron and Shelley were interestingly connected 

with it, the latter declaring that his poems 

/ ^ / //^ JL,—-^ were not thought good enough by Leigh 

(X^C^jAl^ (yfli/^'Z Hunt to be printed there! The 

^ Examiner, long the property of Mr. 

Peter Taylor, the Radical M.P., has recently changed hands more than once, 

and has also halved its price. Both 
the Examiner and Life are under 
the editorial direction of Mr. Charles 
Williams, who has done good work 
as a war correspondent, and in other walks of his profession. 

Family Herald (421, Strand; Weekly, id,), an old-established journal of 
popular tales and essays. 

Family Reader (300, Strand ; Weekly, id.), an illustrated miscellany of stories 
and essays. 

Fortnightly Review (193, Piccadilly ; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), ably edited by Mr. 
John Morley, a Radical in politics and a Positivist in religion. 

Eraser's Magazine (39, Paternoster Row ; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), political and 
social essays ; lately edited by W. Allingham, and now by Principal Tulloch. 
Freemason (198, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 2d.) 
Freemason^s Chronicle (67, Barbican, E.G. ; Weekly, 3d.) 




Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 123 

Fun (153, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.), established in i860, and, in its illus- 
tration department, especially memorable for the drawings of Mr. Sullivan. 

Funny Folks (Red Lion Court, Fleet .^ c;;;;*^ 

Street ; Weekly, id.), edited by Mr. [jj ^^^^X^aJUU\%> ^UaAAM 
William Sawyer, who has written much f . \ 

and well in prose and verse. ^"''^ 

Genealogist (55, Great Russell Street, W.C. ; Quarterly, 2s. 6d.) 

Gentleman's Magazine {:z\\, Piccadilly ; Monthly, is.) has a splendid history, 
dating from 1731, about which a volume might be written. It has altered its 
character of late years, and no longer contains that chronicle of contemporary 
events which makes the back volumes so valuable now, but is wholly occupied 
with high-class general literature. 

Globe (no. Strand ; Evening, id.), started in 1802 by the London publishers, 
who considered themselves uncivilly treated by the Morning Post, then their 
principal advertising medium. The John Murray of that day was one of its 
great supporters ; but the paper's want of success soon led to the falling away 
of most of the publishers, and Mr. Lane, the manager, had an almost lonely 
struggle before he put the Globe upon a commercially sound basis. With the 
Globe has been incorporated the Traveller, and several other evening papers, 
which were obliged to relinquish a separate existence. For the first sixty 
years of its issue the Globe was a Liberal paper, and its change to the other 
political side caused as much comment as the recent and contrary transition of 
the Pall Mall. Once upon a time a past editor of the Globe had a furious 
controversy with D'Israeli the younger ; but the Lord Beaconsfield of to-day has 
few more able and sincere admirers than the editor and staff of the pink sheet. 

Good Words (56, Ludgate I^ill ; 
Monthly, 6d.), a magazine of literature, 
fiction, essays, poetry, &c,, which has 
9 large circulation, and which remu- 




124 Journals and Journalism, 

nerates its distinguished writers with marked liberality. It is edited by 
Dr. McLeod, who is substantially assisted in that task by Mr. Alexander H. 
Japp— himself a delightful writer. Good Words, as its name would imply, is 
.y strongly tinged with religion, and is 

y< / y /^AiU / '^'^'^^^^^^ *^° supply Sunday reading to 

^ UUlAdiyhl/r^^'^^ pious households which are yet 

'* not so strict as to taboo the secular 
interest of Mr. Black's novels (Mr. Black has been a busy journalist in his 
day), and of briskly-written sketches of travel and adventure. 

Graphic (190, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.) divides with the Illustrated London 
News a particular field of illustrated journalism, and is planned upon much 
the same lines as its contemporary and competitor. The latter, until the 
Graphic started, had had no rival except the Illustrated Times, which was 
short-lived, in spite of its excellent letterpress. Our business being here 
entirely with the literary part of the paper, we will say nothing of the 
engravings, which (under the management of Mr. Thomas) are, of course, its 
distinguishing feature. Its tone is decidedly light ; its articles are chatty and 
of the widest range ; it contains batches of paragraphs upon the current 
topics of the day, vers de societe, and a quantity of attractive scraps of all 
kinds. It is not closed to the efforts of aspiring outsiders. The Graphic, 

edited by Mr. Arthur Locker, brother of the 

l^l^'yf^t^^?^ /^--tVi!^^^ author of the popular "London Lyrics," 

^\y and himself a poet, has succeeded brilliantly 

from its first number, both here and in 

America, whither it is regularly sent in stereotype to be reprinted there. 

Hand and Heart {i, Paternoster Buildings, E.G.; Weekly, id.), a popular 

"journal of news and entertaining literature." 

House and Home (335, Strand ; Weekly, id.), an occasionally illustrated 
journal of sanitation, house improvement, and domestic economy. 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 125 

Illustrated London News (198, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.), founded in 1842 by 
Mr. Ingram, who — like his son, the present proprietor of the paper — repre- 
sented Boston in Parliament. At first a struggling enterprise, at times almost 
parted with in despair for a trifling sum, the Illustrated developed into a 
splendid property. It is no hyperbole to say that it is known wherever the 
English language is spoken, and that it circulates with the sun. Its letter- 
press combines the solid and the light ; it often contains art criticism of quite 
unusual excellence, and Mr. Sala's altogether distinctive pen has lately 
brightened its pages with paragraphs on the current topics of the week. 

Jewish Publications: — X.Jewish Chronicle {^"i, Finsbury Square; Weekly, 
ad.) 2. Jewish World (8, South Street, Finsbury ; Weekly, id.) 

Judy (73, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 2d.), an illustrated humorous journal. 

Juvenile publications of all kinds exist in such enormous numbers that we 
excuse ourselves from making a list of them here ; the more willingly because 
they are so low in price that an amateur ordering a shilling's-worth at his 
bookseller's will obtain a bundle of such publications, and be able to examine 
the character of their columns before becoming a candidate for a place in 
them. 

Kensington (ii, Stationers' Hall Court, E.G.; Monthly, 6d.), a literary 
magazine and review, edited by Mrs. Leith Adams. 

Ladies' Publications: — i. Englishwoman' s Domestic Magazine (Dorset Build- 
ings, Salisbury Square, E.G. ; Monthly, is.), illustrated miscellany of litera- 
ture, fashions, and needlework. 2. Englishwoman'' s Reviezn of Social and 
Industrial Questions (57, Ludgate Hill ; Monthly, 6d.), advocates the ad- 
vancement of women. 3. Ladies' Treasury and Treasury of Literature (10, 
Paternoster Buildings, E.G. ; Monthly, 6d.), literature, domestic economy, 
and fashion, i^. Myra^s Journal of Dress and Fashion {\q, Bedford Street, 
W. G. ; Monthly, 3d.) 5. Queen (346, Strand; Weekly, 6d.), a large and 
singularly complete ladies' newspaper ; one of the splendid journalistic 



126 Journals and 'Journalism. 

properties of the late Serjeant Cox, and now owned by his representatives. It 
frequently contains ably-written articles, and a capital collection of general 
news, so that it is by no means despised by the husbands and fathers and 
brothers of its subscribers. In its feminine departments — presided over by a 
most able editress, under whose conduct the paper has risen to its present 
eminent position — it is at once practical, artistic, housewdfely, and millinerial. 
6. Sylvia's Home Journal (Dorset Buildings, Salisbury Square, E.G. ; 
Monthly, 6d.), a ladies' journal of tales, stories, patterns, and fashions. 7. 
Woman's Gazette, or News about Work (187, Piccadilly, W. ; Monthly, 2d.), 
advocates the advancement and employment of woman. 8. Young Ladies' 
Journal [IZS, Salisbury Square, E.G. ; Weekly, id.), fashions, needlework, 
and tales. 

Legal Publications:— I. Law Journal (5, Quality Gourt, Ghancery Lane; 
Weekly, 6d.) 2. Law Times (10, Wellington Street, W.C. ; Weekly, is.), 
was the property of the late Serjeant Gox. 

Leisure Hour (56, Paternoster Row; Monthly, 6d.), a well-conducted 
illustrated magazine of stories and popular essays for family reading. 

Life (136, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.), one of the society papers, started in 1879, 
and soon distinguished by the pretty phototype reproductions of fair faces, 
generally drawn by Frank Miles, and of Continental pictures. Mr. R. Davey, 
a journalist with a reputation on both sides the Atlantic, was in a sense the 
literary father of Life, but it was eventually produced under the editorial 
care of Mr. H. P. Stephens. The paper was recently transferred from its first 
proprietors to the owner of the Examiner, and both papers are conducted 
under the same roof. 

Literary World (13, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.), a popular journal of 
literature, containing notices of books, and articles of literary interest. 

Lloyd's Weekly London Newspaper (12, Salisbury Square, Fleet St. ; Sunday, 
Id.), a Liberal paper for the people. The editorial chair left vacant in 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 127 

1857 by the death of Douglas Jerrold was filled by his son, Mr. Blanchard 
Jerrold, who has written much for the Daily ^ 

News, the Morning Post, the Gentleman's t /) f ^/V>^ 

Magazine, the Athenceum, and is also the J^jaj. JU Q/*^ I/^ ^^^ 
author of many well-known works. - - ^ 

London Figaro (35, St. Bride St., E.G. ; Weekly, id.), a smartly-written 
political, critical, and satirical journal, edited by Mr. J. Mortimer, who was 
recently imprisoned /or publishing Mrs. Weldon's statements about certain 
domestic affairs. 

London Jou7-nal (332, Strand; Weekly, id.), a miscellany of fiction and 
popular papers, established in 1845. 

London Reader (334, Strand ; Weekly, id.), an illustrated journal of light 
literature. 

London Society (188, Fleet Street ; Monthly, is.), a magazine of general 
literature, lately edited by Florence ^ ^,<^^ 

Marryat, and now by Mr. Hogg ; it is the ^;^>>— ^'V— --'' c/r~''^^^~^ 
lightest of the shilling monthlies, for while // ^/T 

the others always introduce more or less 

solid padding into their numbers, London Society frankly eschews everything 
that is not amusing. 

Macmillan' s Magazine (29, Bedford Street, Covent Garden; Monthly, is.), 
since its foundation in 1859, has contained stories and essays of great merit. 
Edited by Mr. Grove, who succeeded Professor David Masson, Mac?nillan's 
takes a high literary place among its contemporaries, which are also in a sense 
its imitators. 

Manufacturing and Mechanical Publications : — I. Design and Work (41, 
Tavistock Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 2d.) 2. Engineer (163, Strand ; Weekly, 
6d.) 3. Engineering and Building Times (125, Fleet St. ; Weekly, 2d.) 
4. English Mechanic and World of Science (31, Tavistock St., W.C. ; Weekly, 
2d.) 5. Iron (12, Fetter Lane, E.G. ; Weekly, 6d.) 



128 yournals and Journalism, 



Z /. J^eM:sZi. 



Medical Publications: — British Medical Journal {i6i A, Strand; Weekly, 
6d.), official organ of the British Medical Association. 2. Health (Sheffield 
Street, Lincoln's Inn ; Monthly, id.), family magazine of sanitary and social 
interest. 3. Herald of Health (429, Oxford Street ; Monthly, id.), maga- 
zine of sanitary and social science. 
Edited by Dr. T. L. Nichols, who, 
besides being a successful author, has 
done journalistic work as London cor- 
respondent of a New York paper, and in other ways. 4. Homeopathic World 
(2, Finsbury Circus, E.G. ; Monthly, 6d.) ^. Journal of Mental Science (il, 
New Burlington Street, W. ; Quarterly, 3s. 6d.), organ of the Medico- 
Psychological Association, 6. Za«f^^ (423, Strand ; "Weekly, 7d.), the leading 
organ of the medical profession. 7. Medical Times and Gazette (11, New 
Burlington Street, W. ; Weekly, 6d.) 8. Monthly Homoeopathic Review (59, 
Moorgate Street, E.G.; is.) 

Methodist Publications:—!. Methodist (317, Strand^; Weekly, id.) 2. 
Methodist Recorder (161, Fleet St. ; Weekly, id.) 3. Primitive Methodist 
(4, Wine Office Gourt, Fleet St. ; Weekly, id.) 4. Watchman (i6i. Fleet 
St.; Weekly, 3d.) 

Morning Advertiser (127, Fleet Street ; Daily, 3d.), the organ of the 
Licensed Victuallers; it was established in 1794 by a society of that fraternity, 
every member agreeing to take in the paper daily, and each member to be 
entitled to a share in the profits. Down to 1850 the paper circulated only 
among publicans and the lower class of coffise-house keepers ; but at that date 
an effort was m.ade to extend its operations. The paper was enlarged and 
improved, and a circulation of under 5,000 copies grew in four years until it was 
nearly doubled, and the 1,500 or 1,600 proprietors were dividing a profit of 
;^i2,ooo a year. The late Mr. James Grant was for many years editor of the 
Morning Advertiser, and which was at one time contributed to by Lord 
Brougham. 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 129 

Morning Post {12, Wellington St., W.C. ; Daily, 3d.), a political, general 
and fashionable newspaper; was founded so long ago as 1772, and when first 
issued was the size of one sheet of the Fall Mall Gazette of to-day. At one 
period in its history the paper was owned in part by the Prince Regent, whose 
breakfast-table literature at Carlton House, according to one of our poets, 
consisted of " Death warrants and the Morning Post." Its writers in the past 
have included Charles Lamb, Southey, Sir James Mackintosh, Wordsworth, 
Tom Moore, Praed and Coleridge, the latter being one of successive and 
successful editors. When the venerable paper celebrated its centenary on 
Nov. 2nd, 1872, it devoted several columns to a most interesting account of its 
own history. With Sir Algernon 
Borthwick for its present proprietor 
and editor, and with an able staff at 
his side, the Post maintains its old ' 
prestige, and never carried more ^^^' 
weight with its political, social, and literary verdicts than it does now. 

Music :— I. Musical Standard (185, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 3d.) 2. 
Musical Titties (i, Berners Street, W. ; Monthly, 3d.) 3. Musical World 
(244, Regent Street; Weekly, 4d.) 

Nature (29, Bedford Street, Strand; Weekly, 6d.) deals with scientific 
discoveries and books. Published by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. , and edited by 
Dr. J. Norman Lockyer, Nature is quite the best organ for the class of readers 
for whom it is particularly designed. 

Nineteetith Century (i, Paternoster Square; Monthly, 2S. 6d.), founded and 
edited by Mr. James Knowles,an able man, who was formerly an architect, having 
built, among other places, the Surrey residence of Mr. Alfred Tennyson, his great 
friend and the contributor to his periodical. Mr. Knowles formerly edited the 
Contemporary, which the Nineteenth Century resembles in its general scope *, 

F 2 



n 



1^0 "Journals and Journalism. 

and he originated in 1869 the Metaphysical Society, whose members reflected 
the most various phases of current thought. As its name imphes, the Nine- 
teenth Century is intended to be in every way of its time ; it allows the 
principal intellectual battles (especially the theological and anti- theological 
controversy) to be fought out in its arena without fear or favour. Every one 
of its articles, it may be added, is signed by a name of some note. 

Nonconformist (13, Fleet Street; Weekly, 6d.), a paper that embodies the 
best traditions of Liberalism and Nonconformity, is conscientiously conducted, 
and often has exceptionally discriminating notices of books. 

Notes and Queries (20, Wellington Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 4d.) contains 
antiquarian, literary, scientific and artistic memoranda and information, chiefly 
contributed by outside correspondents. 

Observer (396, Strand ; Sunday, 4d.), a political, social and literary news- 
paper with a history which goes back as far as 179 1, and at no period of which 
was it in a better position than it is now. 

Pall Mall Budget (6d.) is a weekly collection of articles printed in the Pall 
Mall Gazette, with a summary of news. 

Pall Mall Gazette (2, Northumberland Street, Strand; Every Evening, 2d.), 
established in 1865 by Mr. George Smith, head of the firm of Smith, Elder, 
and Co., as proprietor, and Mr. Frederick Greenwood as editor. Several 
thousand pounds were spent, in announcing its advent and otherwise, at its 
inception, and it paid its contributors munificently. In spite of this expendi- 
ture, and the high standing the paper took from the first, it proved an un- 
profitable enterprise for many years. James Greenwood's first "Amateur 
Casual " article (for which he received loo guineas) drew the Pall Mall into a 
more general popularity ; but, notwithstanding, serious changes in the paper 
were deemed necessary, the price being lowered from twopence to a penny — 
and without any success. The next experiment was to publish, in 1870, a 
morning as well as an evening edition of the Pall Mall, and the experiment 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. i 31 

spelled ruin. The first form was then recurred to and is still retained, the 
paper having become a fine property in the meantime. The political history 
of.the Pall Mall is well known, and has lately been the subject of great com- 
ment. Only a few weeks after Mr. Gladstone, then in opposition, had con- 
fessed that the Pall Mall was his most able arraigner in the press, the public 
was surprised to hear that the same statesman, having regained office, was in a 
position to compliment the very same evening journal, "written by gentlemen 
for gentlemen," on being no longer his keenest foe, but his kindest friend. 
The fact was that Mr. Smith had transferred the paper to his son-in-law, Mr. 
Henry Yates Thompson, to whom, a Liberal, its political independence 
was not acceptable. The change of proprietorship necessitated a change in the 
editorial department also, Mr. Greenwood resigning a post he could no longer 
conscientiously retain, not without a keen and natural regret in parting from a 
paper which he " planned, down to the little details of paper and type," which 
are so dear to the journalistically paternal mind. Mr. F. W. Joynes, the 
principal sub-editor of the paper from its foundation till 1 880, retired with his 
chief, also some members of the staff. 

Pan (4, Lugdate Circus Buildings, E.C« ; Weekly, 6d.), a satirical journal, 
edited by Mr. Alfred Thompson, whose only enemies will be "unjust, corrupt, 
and cruel men, pretenders, upstarts, snobs, and humbugs," 

Pen (22, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C. ; Monthly, 6d.) This 
was originally started, in the spring of 1880, as a weekly two-penny literary 
paper, differing from those already established by giving an exclusive 
attention to literary subjects ; also by the reproduction of drawings from the 
illustrated books under review ; and by the light articles and paragraphs 
which popularized its pages. In their prospectus, the projectors of the 
Pen stated their belief that " the best and most difficult function of the critic 
is the discovery of merits rather than of defects;" and promised "that 
while we shall praise nothing that is not good for the sake of being 



132 journals and 'Journalism. 

pleasant, we shall never be tempted into injustice for the mere sake 
of being smart." Under new management, the Pen now appears as a 
monthly, not exclusively devoted to criticism and news, but with an admixture 
of fiction, travels, etc. 

Penny Illustrated Paper (10, Milford Lane, Strand ; Weekly, id.) 

Phonetic Jourtial {20, Paternoster Row, E.C.; Weekly, id.), Mr. Pitman's 
organ of the Phonetic Society. 

Pictorial World (63, Fleet Street; Weekly, 2d.), an illustrated family and 
general newspaper. 

Portfolio (54, Fleet Street ; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), a high-class art journal, to be 
prized equally for its illustrations and its letterpress. Edited by Philip 

Hamerton, the Portfolio cannot fail to be 
charming ; and it also presents to amateurs 
')>/Tyj'^i'*<*«^i'^'^ a fair field with no favour, as may be seen 

jj^ ■ from the announcement: "The editor 

desires to correct an impression that he accepts contributions only from writers 
of estabUshed reputation. He will be most willing to give room to any writer 
of real ability, whether he happens to be celebrated or not." A liberal decree, 
from which Mr. Knowles of the Nineteenth Century would certainly dissent. 

Public Opinimi (li, Southampton Street, Strand ; Weekly, 2d.), one of the 
happy thoughts of journalism. A collection, week by week, of the differing 
opinions of the home and continental press upon the events of the time ; is as 
amusing as it is valuable. \Vhen the paper was in its youth, its compilers 
combined tbeir quotations with a piquant effect of antithesis and mutual con- 
tradiction, which seems now to be less considered. Original book-reviews 
and a column of correspondence, kept up with considerable briskness, are 
mingled with the quoted matter, which is excellently selected and arranged. 

Punch (85, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 3d.) has played since 1841 a considerable 
part in the political and social life of England. Its literar>' history is well 
known. Editorially associated during recent years with the grave name of 




Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 133 

Tom Taylor, its columns have been 

lightened by the incomparable writings ^- m,*-"*** 

of Mr. F. C. Burnand ; while the draw- y(^ ^J^e.^C-C^^it'^tC^ - 

ings of Mr. du Maurier have further 

helped its pages to retain their hold on the pubUc affection. Pwich is no believer 
in the old maxim that the labourer is worthy of his hire, for it every week 
declares that the editor does not undertake to pay for any outside contributions 
, he may accept— an announcement which, in the interests of the amateur, 
and for the credit of the profession, we own that we shall be glad to see 
withdrawn. 

Quarterly Review (50, Albemarle Street, W. ; 6s.) has a history too well 
known to need recapitulation here. The present occupant of the editorial 
chair, in which Gifford and Lockhart formerly sat, is Dr. WiUiam Smith, of 
Classical Dictionary fame, and otherwise a man of high literary distinction. 

Queen (see Ladies' Publications). 

Quiver (Ludgate Hill, E.G. ; Monthly, 6d.), a magazine of Sunday reading; 
as popular and successful as everything of Messrs. Gassell, Fetter, Galpin, and 
Co.'s appears to be. 

Religious Publications :— I. Christian Age (107, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.) 
2. Christian Globe [2<), Farringdon Street, E.G. ; Weekly, id.) 3. Christian 
Herald (2, Ivy Lane, E.G. ; Weekly, id.) 4. Christian Union (8, Salisbury 
Square, Fleet Street; Weekly, id.) 5. Christian World (13, Fleet Street; 
Weekly, id.) 

Reynolds' Weekly Newspaper (313, Strand; Weekly, id.) advocates 
Republican principles. 

St. James's Gazette (Dorset Street, Fleet Street ; Evening, 2d.), the paper 
founded by Mr. Frederick Greenwood after his secession from the Fall Mall 
Gazette. The new organ, which resembles the Pall Mall in outward 
appearance, and in its style differs from it only by being a little more jaunty, 
made its debut on May 31st, 1880. Backed by a large amount of capital, read 



I 34 'Journals and Journalism. 

by independent politicians and by Conservatives, written and edited with 
character and talent, the St. Jameses Gazette has been born with a silver spoon 
in its mouth, and can hardly miss a prosperous career. 

St. James's Magazine and United Empire Review [% Friar Street, Broadway, 
E.G. ; Monthly, is.) novels, essays, political and biographical articles. 

Saturday Revie^v (38, Southampton Street, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.), estab- 
lished in 1855 ; connected in its proprietary with the name of Mr. Beresford- 
Hope, M.P., and edited for some time by the late Mr. Cook. In many 
respects a unique paper ; its very name has acquired a flavour of its own upon 
the tongue— a taste of bitter herbs, astringent and not ungrateful. Yet the 
Saturday Review is at least as remarkable for its liberal recognition of merits 
as for its scorn of faults. It knows, indeed, how to use ridicule ; and if that 
weapon is a legitimate, nay, valuable one, it is well that it should be employed 
intelligently. The tone of the paper is strongly pronounced for morality and 
for reverence towards the things which are generally accepted as sacred. It 
has never occupied the now common neutral ground of absolute indifference to 
all save " art " and " honour " ; it is scholarly, making, perhaps, a specialty 
of historical and classical knowledge. The political articles lead off, followed 
by papers of social and other current subjects of interest in smaller type, these 
being succeeded by book reviews, in the course of which one author is gene- 
rally crushed in each number. Periodical notices of German, American, and 
other foreign publications are a marked feature of the Saturday Review. 
There is no political or other trimming in its columns. It has lately stung 
Mr. Gladstone into a hot retort ; but Lord Beaconsfield, in past years, felt 
the same lash, wielded, in his case, by the Marquis of Salisbury, who then 
increased by his pen the income of a younger son. 

Service Publications : — I. Army and Navy Gazette (16, Wellington Street, 
W.C. ; Weekly, 6d.), edited by Dr. W. H. Russell, the famous correspon- 
dent of The Times and the Telegraph. 2. Broad Arrow (2, Waterloo Place, 




Dictionary of the Periodical Press, 135 

S.W. ; Weekly, 6d.) 3. Civil Service 
Gazette (6, Salisbury Street, Strand ; 
Weekly, 3d.) 4. Colbtcrn's United Ser- 
vice Magazine (13, Great Marlborough 
Street ; Monthly, 3s. 6d.) 5. Naval Chronicle (18, Adam Street, Strand ; 
Monthly, 6d.) 6. Naval and Military Gazette (4, Spring Gardens, Charing 
Cross ; Weekly, 3d.) 7. United Service Gazette (7, Wellington Street, W.C. ; 
Weekly, 6d.) 8. Volunteer Service Gazette (121, Fleet Street ; Weekly, 4d.) 

Social Notes (16, Southampton Street, Strand ; Weekly, id.) Articles on 
social reforms, requirements, and progress ; founded by the Marquis Towns- 
hend, with Mr. S. C. Hall for first editor, his sorrowful experiences in that 
capacity being chronicled in our law-court reports. 

Society (84, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.), ^^ 
a gossipy, bright little paper, in some C^^^j^;^Lr^^^<>*_*7^ ^y 
ways the most wonderful pennyworth ^ ^ f f"^^^^^ L^^l/t^ 

among the weeklies. — ' 

Spectator (i, Wellington Street, Strand ; Weekly, 6d.) has celebrated its 
golden jubilee, but shows no sign of the decrepitude of age. Mr. R. H. 
Hutton here mounts his pulpit every Saturday, with utterances of entire 
honesty, which give to his paper a 

singular interest and charm. Indepen- ^^ /l/f/ ^y ^y^- 

dent, outspoken, and powerful in its ^>'i^m/-v//^/'^^--'^?^*^'t''-t — 
political articles, the Spectator in its 

literary notices is discriminating, candid, and fair ; and all its utterances on 
religion are marked by a freedom from bias rare indeed in any newspaper, and 
characteristic, like the other features of the journal, of Mr. Hutton's own mind. 

Spiritualist Publications : — I. Medium and Daybreak (15, Southampton 
Row, Holborn; Weekly, ijd.) 2. Spiritualist (11, Ave Maria Lane, E.G. ; 
Weekly, 2d.) 



^3^ 'Journals and Journalism. 

.S^aw^ar^ (104, Shoe Lane, E.G.; Morning and Evening, id.) was originally 
an evening paper only, and was specially designed to oppose the application of 
the principles of civil and religious liberty to the case of the Roman Catholics 
then in England. Dr. Giffard, an ultra-Protestant, was its first editor. 
Appearing in 1S27, it was soon afterwards referred to hy \!n.& Morning Chronicle 
as "a journal which has crawled into existence, and is fast hastening towards 
dissolution." The Morning Chronicle itself fulfilled the amiable prediction it 
had ventured in regard to a contemporary which, after some early struggles, 
soon attained stability. When the Maynooth Grant was placed on the Con- 
solidated Fund, the Standard, according to Mr. James Grant, modified its 
hostility to the Catholic religion at the instance of Sir Robert Peel, who took 
the precaution of influencing Dr. Giffard in favour of the measure before he 
introduced it in the House ; and by its desertion of the ultra-Protestant cause 
on this occasion it offended many of those who had previously given it a 
warm support. The Standard long ago gave evidence of that honourable mode 
of conducting political controversy for which it has lately been much com- 
mended, refusing, as it did, to make common cause with its Tory contemporaries 
against the Liberal administration in connection with the case of the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton and Lord Melbourne, who was then Premier. The Statidard, after 
it was an established success, passed from the hands of Mr. Edward Baldwin 
(son of its first proprietor) into those of Mr. Johnstone, who reduced the price 
from 4d. to 2d., and made it a morning as well as an evening paper. This was 
in 1857 ; and in 1858 its price was further lowered to id., though its size was 
increased. The Standard is one of the largest of the penny papers, and, perhaps 
on this account, carries off the palm as to the variety and completeness of its 
news. The Evening Standard is published under the same auspices and at 
the same place as the morning issue, which it resembles in general excellence. 

Statist (16, York St., W.C. ; Weekly, 6d.), financial and commercial statis- 
tics and articles. 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 137 

Stmday at Home (ijo, Paternoster Row; Weekly, id.), family reading, 
carefully selected, and well illustrated. 

Sunday Magazine (56, Ludgate Hill ; Monthly, 6d.), stories, essays, verses, 
for Sunday and general reading. 

Sunday Times (8, New Bridge St., E.G. ; 2d,) A capital paper. 

Temple Bar Magazine (8, New Burlington Street, W. ; Monthly, is.), 
established in i860 close upon the great success of the Cornhill, and laid upon 
much the same lines, save that it eschewed illustrations, and made^ a specialty 
of a light and journaKstic style of essay, as was to be expected from the peculiar 
talents of its first editor, Mr. Sala. Its novels, too, were distinctively of the 
smart order, and this tradition it has preserved until now, by publishing some 
of the briskest stories by the lady novelists most in vogue. A thoroughly 
readable magazine, and its past numbers contain, among more ephemeral 
matter, some memorable articles and poems. 

Theatrical Publications: — i. Era (49, Wellington Street, W.C. ; Weekly, 
5d.), founded in 1837; owned and ably conducted by Mr. Edward Ledger. 
2. Theatre (26, Wellington Street, W.C. ; Monthly, is.), edited by Clement 
Scott, the dramatic critic of the Daily Telegraph. 

Times (Printing House Square, E.C. ; Daily, 3d.) "Madam, have you 
seen Mr. Cambridge's excellent verses called * The Progress of Liberty ? ' 
They appeared in a paper called The Times " — so wrote Horace Walpole to 
the Countess of Ossory on the 1 2th of December, 1789. From "a paper 
called TJie Times'" to "the Leading 
Organ " is a long jump, and the story 
of it will, no doubt, be one day worthily 
written. Here is only space for little 
more than a few names and dates. First published in 1785, under the 
title of the Daily Universal Register, by Mr. John Walter, the namesake and 
grandfather of the present principal proprietor, at Printing House Square. 




^3^ yournals and 'Journalism. 

He was an ingenious man, a master of the technique of printing, trying many 
doubtful experiments, and patenting various manifest improvements connected 
with his craft. On the first day of the year 1788, the pappr appeared as The 
Times — the older and cumbrous title having proved as injurious to it as did 
Tristram to Mr, Shandy's son. To be " fashionable, humorous, and witty " 
entered into the design of Mr. Walter's organ in those early years, and it con- 
tained lively paragraphs such as now appear in the "society" papers. No 
leading articles were published then ; and the number of advertisements in 
the first issue of The Times was only ''57. Mr. Walter made the paper pros- 
perous, and then transferred it in 1803 to his son, also a man of business 
knowledge and capacity. In 18 10 The Times was certainly not open to that 
charge of trimming which has been advanced against it of late, with some- 
thing of exaggeration ; for its course was just then so unpleasant to the ruling 
politicians that the Government advertisements were withdrawn from its 
columns ; and so petty became the persecution, that the editor's packages from 
abroad were stopped by Government at the outposts, while those for the 
Ministerial journals were allowed to pass. After successive enlargements, 
both in size and in circulation. The Times became difficult to produce in suffi- 
cient numbers by the hand printing-presses, and Mr. Walter, after expending 
much money and attention on attempts to meet the difficulty, at last produced, 
in 1844, a copy of the paper printed by steam and machinery — to the intense 
disgust of the pressmen in Printing House Square. The Times is now 
said to be produced, on the Walter printing-press, at the rate of more than 
20,000 copies an hour, by a system over which something like ;^5o,ooo has 
been spent in bringing it to its present perfection. The Times has often acted 
with great public spirit, as when it did much to cure the first fever of railway 
speculation — at the loss of many thousands of pounds to its own coffers, 
through the retaliative withdrawal of these speculative advertisements from 
its columns. Thus has it earned its title of the Monarch of the Press. Its 




Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 1 39 

contributors (who are more handsomely paid than those of any other daily 
paper) include many eminent men in various walks of life ; and its editor 
enjoys a prestige of his own among journalists and in general society. Of 
Mr. Delane, the late brilliant editor, we have spoken in earlier pages. His 
cessation of labour was followed by another severe loss to The Times — the 
retirement of its sub-editor, Mr. Stebbing. The 
present occupant of the editorial throne is Mr. 
Thomas Chenery, formerly known to fame only as 
a distinguished Oriental scholar. ^ ( - 

Tt>?ie (i, York Street, Covent Garden; Monthly, is.), a magazine of 
general literature, brightly edited by Mr. Bdmund Yates. 

Ti??tes Weekly Edition (2d.) has been published since 1877, containing 
prominent contents of one week's daily issues. 

Tinsley's Magazine (8, Catherine Street, Strand ; Monthly, is.) contains 
essays and reviews, but is chiefly known for its fiction — largely contributed of 
late by Mr. Richard Dowling, the young novelist whose " Mystery of Killard " 
and " Weird Sisters " have scored a signal success. 

Truth l(l(i. Queen Street, E.G. ; Weekly, 6d.), started in 1877 by Mr. 
Labouchere. It has much in common with the World, devoting a large space 
to the political, personal, and cynical paragraphs of which everybody more or 
less protests that he disapproves, while everybody reads them. Truth is less 
literary than the World, caring less for classical finish or technical excellence 
than for spiciness and dash. The paper largely reflects the personality of the 
editor, who has an efficient lieutenant in Mr. Horace Voules. 

Unitarian Publications: — i. Christian Life (123, Fleet Street; Weekly, 2d.) 
2. Inquirer (37, Norfolk Street, Strand ; Weekly, 5d.) 

University Magazine (13, Great Marlborough Street; Monthly, 2s. 6d.), 
critical essays and reviews. Formerly the Dublin University Magazine. 

Vanity Fair (12, Tavistock Street, W.C. ; Weekly, is,), the first and 




140 'Journals and yournalism, 

chief of the existing " society papers," having been founded in 1868. Its 
high price separates it somewhat from the ruck of its kind, and it is also 
distinguished by its caricature portraits— unequal, but in some instances exces- 
sively clever. Tales, articles— political, social, and critical— and the ubi- 
quitous paragraph form the chief part of its contents. 

Victoria Magazine (85, Praed Street, 
W. ; Monthly, is.), conducted by Miss 
Emily Faithfull, to forward the general 
interests of women. 
Walter Pelkam's Illustrated Journal (Fetter Lane, E.G.; Weekly, id.), 
"a miscellany of romance, wit, and wisdom," 

Weekly Budget (Red Lion Court, Fleet Street ; Weekly, id.) 
Weekly Dispatch (20, Wine Office Court, Fleet Street ; Sunday, id.), 
a strongly conducted journal for the industrial classes, owned and edited by 
Mr. Ashton W. Dilke, M.P. 

Weekly Eeviexv (5, Drury Court, Strand ; Weekly, 4d.) 
Weekly Ti?nes (332, Strand ; Sunday, id.) 
Week^s News (91, Gracechurch Street, E.G. ; Weekly, 2d.) 
Westminster /^eviezu {^y,hudgate Hill ; Quarterly, 6s.) General essays and 
reviews written from the political and religious standpoint of the late John 
Stuart Mill, its distinguished editor. The Westminster has excellent and 
candid book reviews. 

Whitehall Review (6, York Street, Govent Garden ; Weekly, 6d.), a " per- 
sonal " journal with a special feature in the publication of portraits, principally 
of ladies well known in the London world. For the rest, the ^/4//^/^a// contains 
the articles, correspondence, essays, and, above all, the paragraphs which are 
also characteristic of its competitors. It describes itself as the "journal of good 
society, " and devotes much space to chit-chat on the sayings and doings of 
persons of fashion. The Whitehall has an enterprising proprietor and editor 



Dictionary of the Periodical Press. 141 

in Mr. Edward Legge, a barrister-at-law, formerly connected with the 
Morning Post. 

World (i, York Street^ Covent Garden ; Weekly, 6d.), originated in 1874 
by Mr. Edmund Yates, with the collaboration of Mr. Labouchere and Mr. 
Grenville Murray, but now the sole property of Mr. Yates. Its own frank 
description of itself as a "journal for men and women " is the best to label it 
with. While amusing the men and women of town with scraps of news 
about themselves and each other, told in the lightly cynical tone which they 
themselves are in the habit of using, it interests 
the men and women of a larger world with 
its fresh, crisp, and capable political sketches, 
portraits of "Celebrities at Home, "criticism 
— the musical department being in particularly good hands — and short general 
essays. Personal it undoubtedly is, but there is no denying the fact that 
modern society has so far moderated its prejudices that personal journalism 
is often anything but unacceptable to its subjects, while to its readers it 
appears to be eminently acceptable. The IVor/d, besides, has always 
preserved a certain masculine tone ; it disclaims the title of " society 
paper," and has never condescended to Thackeray's favourite abomination — 
snobbery. 



"•^ "&"•■*/ "J — — ■> 

rests ^ . ^ 

:hes, ^^^^-^..^^iL.^ Afy^ 

;ism c/ 






A ^^wn. 












23 ^ 



Jocuie/fvintiu 



^l 



HOW TO CORRECT PROOFS. 

CORSECTED FOR. PRESS. 

I' Madrag. to which Give had been 
appoint)/d^ was, at this time, penjaps, 
the first in. importance of thdCom* 
pany ^settlements^ 

^^Inthe preceding- century^ Fort 
Saint ^ Qeorge had arisen on a 
^spot/B^en beatea by a raging 
surF^and in the jieighbotrrhood. a 
towDj inhabited y(^-«»e5^ thousands 
of natives^ had sprung tJp, as - they - 
spr^'ng up in the JEast, with £he 
rapidity of the prophet's gourd. 
** Thgre were already in the suC^j-bs 
many white villas^each surrounded 
by its garden^ whither the agents of 
theybrnpany retired, after the labours 
of the desW to enjoy the cool breeze 
which springs up at sunse^rom the 
Bay of/Bengal/ The habits of these 
meip^tile grandees appear to have 
n more profuse, luxuries, and 
ofistentatious than those of the high 
judicial and political functioanries 
who have succeeded them/ /Zor^ 
C^tve, hy Lord Macaulay. 



j5 ^. C<iMl 



^6 ^/ 



-/ 



as (> 

30 /-/ 



HOW TO CORRECT PROOFS. 

READY FOR PRESS. 

"MADRAS, to which Clive had 
been appointed, was, at this time, 
perhaps, the first in importance of 
the Company's settlements. In the 
preceding century, Fort Sf. George 
had arisen on a barren spot beaten 
by a raging surf; and in the neigh- 
bourhood a town, inhabited by many 
thousands of natives, had sprung up, 
as towns spring up in the East, with 
the rapidity of the prophet's gourd. 

" There were already in the suburbs 
many white villas (each surrounded 
by its garden), whither the agents of 
the Company retired, after the labours 
of the desk and the warehouse, to 
enjoy the cool breeze which springs 
up at sunset from the Bay of Bengal. 
The habits of these mercantile 
grandees appear to have been more 
profuse, luxurious, and ostentatious 
than those of the high judicial and 
political functionaries who have 
succeeded them." — Lord Clive, by 
Lord Macaulav. 



rlj 



HOW TO CORRECT PROOFS. 

EXPLANATION, 



1. Marks for turned commas, to designate 
extracts. 

2. To change a word from small letters 
to capitals, mark three lines under it, and 
write caps, in the margin opposite. 

3. Where there is a wrong letter, draw 
the pen through that letter, and mark the 
right one in the margin opposite, with a 
down line following it. 

4. When a paragraph commences where 
it is not intended, connect the matter by a 
line, and write in the margin opposite, no 
break or run on. 

5. Where a word has to be changed to 
italic, make a line under the word, and 
write italic in the margin. 

6. Words to be transposed. 

7. A semi-colon omitted. 

8. Omission of a word is noticed by a 
caret, A ^nd marking in the margin. 

9. To draw the letters of a word close 
together which stand apart. 

10. The marks for a paragraph, when its 
commencement has been omitted. 

11. Substitution of a capital for a small 
letter. 

12. The substitution of a full point for a 
comma or other point. 

13. Superfluous letters or words should 
be noticed by a line drawn through them, 
and this mark written in the margin (dele, 
take out). 

14. The marks for closing an extract. 

15. To change a word from small letters 
to small capitals, make two lines under the 
word, and write sm. caps, in the margin. 

16. A letter turned upside down. 

17. The mark for a space where it has 
been omitted between two words. 

18. A comma omitted. 



19. When a letter of a different size to 
that used, or of a different face, appears 
in a word, draw a line either through it or 
under it, and write opposite w./. (wrong 
fount). 

20. When one or more words have been 
struck out, and it is subsequently decided 
that they shall remain, make dots under 
them and write itei (stand) in the margin. 

21. The substitution of one word for 
another. 

22. Where a word has to be changed 
from Italic to Roman, make a line under it 
and write ronian on the margin opposite. 

23. The substitution of a small for a 
capital letter. 

24. Marks when lines and words do not 
appear straight. 

25. The marks for parentheses. 

26. A battered, broken, or misshapen 
letter may also be noticed by a line drawn 
under or through it, and a + written in 
the margin. 

27. Where a space stands up and appears, 
draw a line through it, and make a strong 
perpendicular mark in the margin. 

38. A letter omitted. 

29. The transposition of letters in a 
word. 

30- The dash omitted. The hyphen 
omitted is marked by a shorter line with 
only one vertical mark. 

31 . The manner of marking an omission, 
or an insertion, when it is too long to be 
written in the side margin. When this 
occurs, it may be written either at the top 
or bottom of the page. 

Care should always be taken that the 
errata are written in the order in which 
they occur. 



INDEX. 







PAGE 








'AGE 


Academy 




107 


Austin, Alfred 






63 


Adams, Mr. Leith ... 




125 










After Work 




107 


Baptist ... ■ 






IIO 


Agnew, William 





63 


Bazaar 






III 


Agricultural papers ... 




117 


Beaconsfield, Lord ... 


74, 


123, 


134 


Alford, Dean 




116 


Belgravia ^ 


22 


,58, 


III 


All the Ycm- Round ... 




107 


Bennett 






26 


Amateur Magazine ... 




II 


Biograph 






III 


Amateurs, their dil 


ettante 




Black, William 






124 


habits, 9 ; their styl 


e, II ; 




Blackwood's Magazine 






III 


advice to, 20 ; the dest 


roying 




Borthwick, Sir Algernon 


64, 


129 


stage, 22 ; must be per 


sistent 


24 


Bow Bells 






iir 


American Traveller... 




108 


Bowles, T. G 






64 


Anglo-American Times 




108 


Brief 






III 


Animal World 




108 


British Architect 






109 


Anonymity 




72 


British Mail 


.« 




108 


Antiquary 





109 


British Quarterly 






112 


Architect ... . 




109 


Brougham, Lord, a rejected con- 




Argosy 


.. 


109 


tributor, 33 ; jealous of 


his 




Army papers 




135 


colleagues on the Edinbui 


■gh. 




Arnold, Arthur 


'.'. 62, 


120 


121 ; contributed 


to 


the 




Arnold, Edwin 


• 43, 


120 


Morning Advertiser 






12S 


Arnold, Matthew 




117 


Browning, Mrs. 




21, 


117 


Artist 


..> 


109 


Browning, Robert ... 






43 


Art Journal 




109 


Buckland, Frank 






117 


Art, Magazine of ... 




109 


Building journals 






109 


AthcncEum 





IIO 


Burnand, F. C. 






133 


Atlantic Monthly ... . 




108 


Byron 






42 



146 



Index. 



Carlyle edited out ofn^cognition, 
32 ; his French Revolution 
declined by a publisher, 33 ; 

American payments 99 

CasseWs Magazine 112 

Catholic publications 112 

Chambers' s y ozirnal 114 

Charing Cross Magazine 114 

Chatto and Windus Ill 

Chenery, T 137, I39 

" Christian " publications ... 133 

Church of England publications, 1 14 

115, 116 

Colbiirn's New Monthly 116 

Coleridge, editor of Morning 

Post 129 

Coleridge, Father 113 

Collins, Wilkie 56 

Commandments, Ten Literary loi 

Contei>if>o7-a7y Review ... 41, 116 

Copyright 97 

Cornhill Maga zine 116 

Court Circular 118 

Court yournal 1 1 8 

Courtney, Leonard 62 

Cowen, Joseph 62 

Cox, Serjeant iii, 126 

Daily Chronicle Il8 

Daily News 118 

Daily papers, salaries on ... 44 

Daily Telegraph 94, "9 

Davey, R 126 

Day of Rest 120 

Declined with thanks," 



32, 


33 


• •• 70, 77. 


85 





43 


on his con- 




his emotion 





bitterness of the phrase , 27 ; 
how to take it, 28 ; great 
authors to whom it has been 
addressed 

Delane, M. T. 

De Vere, Aubrey 

Dickens, Charles, 
tributions, 15 ; 
on iirst appearing in print, 22 ; 
as a reporter, 25 ; on diffi- 
culties of learning short-hand, 
57 ; denounces impertinent 
journalism, 95 ; as editor of 
Daily News ^ 

Dilke, Ashtcn 62, 

Dilke, Sir Charles ... 62, no, 

Dixon, Hepworth, first contri- 
buted to local papers when a 
merchant's clerk, 23 ; his diffi- 
culty in finding a publisher, 
33 ; editor of Athenaum 

Dowling, R 

Dublin Review 

Duplication of literary work 



119 
140 
118 



109 

132 

III 

51 



Earnings of a young journalist 
during his first year's labour 49 

Ecclesiastical Gazette 114 

Echo 120 

Economist 121 

Edinburgh Review ... 32, 47, 121 

Editorial "we" 82, 84 

Editors, introductions to 13 ; 
thorns in their cushions, 15 ; 
who are also proprietors, 47 ; 



Index^ 



H7 



their labours and responsibili- 
ties, 73, 86 ; who never write, 
86 ; great men who have 

failed as 86 

Educational publications ... 122 

Edwards, Passmore 62, 121 

Eliot, George, rejected. 33 ; her 

remuneration 40 

" Englishwoman's " papers ... 125 

Era 137 

Examiner 122 

Faithfall, Miss 140 

Family Herald 1 22 

Family J\ cad er 122 

Farming publications 117 

Fathers, in relation to their as- 
piring sons 26, 38 

Field 117 

Finigan, Lysaght 63 

First appearance in print ... 89 

Floral publications 117 

Fonblanque, Albany, at work 29 

Forbes, Archibald 119 

Foreign Times 108 

Forster, John 118, 119 

Fortttightly Review 122 

Franklin 26 

Frase7''s Magazine 122 

Freeman no 

Freemason 122 

Fi-eemason's Chronicle 122 

Friendly Leaves 1 15 

Fun 123 

Funny Folks 123 



Gardening publications 

Gaskell, Mrs 

Geneclogist 

Gentleman'' s Magazine 

Gladstone 131, 

Globe 

Gcod Words 

Good work not always market- 
able 

Go wing, Richard 

Grant, James 

Graphic 

Gratuitous contributions 

Gray, E. D 

Gi-eeley, Horace 

Greenwood, Frederick ... 130, 

Greenwood, James 

Giove, George 

Guardian 



Hrdl S. C 109, 

Ilamerton, P. G 

Hand and Heart 

Harper'' s Magazine 

Harte, Eret 

Hatton, Joseph 

Hawthorn, Nathaniel, his early 
work " declined with 
thanks " ... 

Health papers 

Hill, Frank H 

Hoey, Mrs. Cashel 

Hogg, James 

Home Ne-ws 

Homceopathic papers 



PAGE 

117 
117 
123 
123 

134 

I2i 
123 

33 
122 
128 
124 

10 

63 
26 

133 
130 
127 

IIS 

135 
132 
124 
108 
26 
51 



30 

128 

119 

17 
127 
108 
128 



148 



Index, 



PAGE 

Hope, Beresford^ 63 

Horticultural publications ... 117 

Jlouse and Home 124 

How to correct proofs 142 

Huish, Marcus 109 

Hutton, R. H 135 

Illustrated London News 125 

Japp, A. H 123 

Jenkins, Edward 62 

Jerrold, Blanchard 127 

Jerrold, Douglas 26, 127 

Jewish publications 1 25 

John Bull 115 

Journalism, affords a beginning 
for the literary aspirant, 4 ; 
how to begin, 19 ; dislike of 
the mental and manual labour 
not fatal to success, 19 ; dis- 
tinction between literature 
and, 39, 43 ; as a career — the 
fair side, 53, 65 ; the seamy 

side 66, 

Journalists in poverty 

Joynes, F. W 

Ji^dy _ ... 

Juvenile publications 



Kensington 

Knowles, James 

Labouchere, Ily. 

Ladies' publications 
Lamb, Charles 



... 116, 



72 

45 

131 

125 

125 

125 
129 



62, 116, 139, 
141 

125 

129 



Lancet 

Land and Water 

Lawson, E. L 

Ledger, Edward 

Legal publications 

Legge, Edward .. ..., 

Leisure Hotir 

Lewes, George Henry, at work 
29 ; rejected 

Lewis, George 

Life 

Linton, Mrs. Lynn 

Lippincotfs Magazine ... 

Literary career, advantages of, 
58 ; noble prerogatives' of, 
60 ; a stepping-stone to other 
distinctions, 61, 64 ; train- 
ing for 

Literary Church77ian 

Literary clerks in Government 
offices 

Literary World 

Lloyds Weekly 

Locker, Arthur 

Lockhart 

Lockyer, Norman 

London correspondents for 
country papers 

London Figaro 

London journal 

London dreader 

Lon don Society 

Lucy, W. H 51, 

Macaulay, could not find a 
market for all he wrote, 22 j at 



PACK 

128 
117 
120 
137 
125 

126 

33 
100 

126 

16 

108 



66 
116 

67 
126 
126 
124 

"3 
129 

SI 
127 
127 
127 
127 
119 



Index. 



149 



work, 29 ; reviewed without 
reading, I2I ; Brougham 

jealous of 121 

McCarthy, Justin ... 25, 63, 69 

McLeod, Dr 124 

Magazines, money to be made 

by writing in 41 

Mallock, W. H 42 

Manufacturing and mechanical 

papers 127 

Marketable work 33 

Marryat, Florence 127 

Martineau, Hariiet 118 

Masson, David 127 

Medical papers 128 

Methodist publications 128 

Mill, J. S 140 

Misprints 89 

Motith 113 

Monthly Packet 116 

Morley, John 64, 122 

Morley, Samuel 119 

Morning Advertiser 128 

Morning Post 37) 129 

Mortimer, J 127 

Motley's Dutch Republic re- 
fused by publisher 33 

MulhoUand, Miss Rosa 113 

Murra)', Grenville 141 

Murray, John 123 

Myra's Journal 1 25 

Musical papers 129 

Napier, Macvey 121 

Nature 129 



Naval papers .~ ... 
Newman, Cardinal ... 

Nichols, Dr 

Nineteefith Century ... 
Nonconformist 
Notes and Queries . . . 

Observer 

O'Connor, T. P. ... 
O'Donnell, F. H. ... 
Overland Mail 



••• 135 

29, 116 

... 128 

41, 129 

... 130 

... 133 

... 130 

... 63 

... 63 

... 105 



37, 



Pall Mall Gazette ... 

Parish Magazine 

Payn, James, on the literary 



38. 



career 

Penny Illustrated Paper 
Personal journalism 
Phonetic Journal 
Pict07-ial World 

Plant, G. W 

Poetry, payment for 

Portjolio 

Printers who have become 

editors and authors 
Procter, Adelaide Anne 
Ftiblic Opinion 
Punch 



Quarterly Review 

Queen 

Quiver 

Record 

Reeve, Henry, C.B. 



130 
116 

54 
132 

93 
132 
132 

135 

42 
132 

26 

17 
132 

132 



41. 133 

... 125 

•■• 133 

... 116 

... 121 



150 



Index. 



Remuneration, literary, see 
chapter on " Pounds, Shillings 

and Pence" 37 — 52 

Reporting, special, 20 ; im- 
personality in, 20 ; beginning 

a literary career by 24 

Return of rejected MSS. ... 28 

Reynolds' Weekly Newspaper ... 133 
Robinson Crusoe, "declined 

with thanks " 31 

Robinson, J, R 119 

Rock 116 

Roslyn Grey HI, 116 

Ruskin, began by writing verses 

in an obscure periodical ... 23 

Russell, Charles, Q.C 113 

Russell, Dr. W. H 135 

Sala, George A. iv., 40, 120, 125, 137 

Saturday Review 35, 134 

Sawyer, William 123 

Scott, Clement 137 

Scott, Sir Walter 42 

Scribrur's Magazine 108 

Service publications 135 

Sexton, T 63 

Sharp, Martin R US 

Shelley's poems not good 

enough for the Examiner ... 122 

Smiles, Samuel, where he began 23 

Smith, Dr. William 133 

Smith, Elder and Co 130 

Smith, G. Barrett 121 

Social Notes 135 

Society 135 



Special correspondents 

Spectator 

Spiritualist publications 
Sporting publications 

Standard 

Statist 

Stebbing, W 

Stephen Leslie 
Stephens, H. P. 
St. yames^s Gazette ... 
St. James's Magazine 
Strahan, Alexander ... 
Sullivan, A. M, 
Sullivan, T. D. 
Sunday at Home 
Su7iday Magazine 

Sunday Times 

Sylvia' s Home Journal 

Tablet 

Taylor, Sir Henry ... 

Taylor, Tom i 

Temple Bar 

Tennyson, 21 ; his 

income 

Thackeray, his editorial experi- 
ences, 19; his early contribu- 
tions "declined with thanks," 
31, 55; on "Knights of the Pen" 

Theatre 

Thompson, Alfred 

Time 

Times 

Tinsley's Magazine 

Townshend, Marquis 



•• 37, 
', SO, 

yearly 



PAGE 

68 
I3S 
135 
117 
136 
136 

139 
117 
126 

133 
134 
116 

63 
63 
137 
137 
137 

I2S 

43 
133 
137 

42 



95 
137 
132 

139 
137 
139 
135 



Index. 



151 



Training requisite for literaiy 

success ... 57 

TroUope, Anthony, his first 
attempts, 33 ; his literary in- 
come, 33 ; on journalism as a 

career 55 

Trtith 139 

Tulloch, Principal 122 

University Magazine 139 

Unitarian papers 139 

Vanity Fair \6,o 

Victoria Magazine 140 

Voules, Horace 139 

Walford, E 109, 118 

Walter, J 137 

Walter Felham^s Illustrated . . . 

Journal 140 



Ward, Artemus , 

Ward, Dr. W. G 

Weekly Budget 

Weekly Dispatch 

Weekly Register 

Weekly Review 

Weekly Times 

Week'' s News 

Westminster Review 

Wh itehall Review 

Wilberforce, H. W 

Williams, Charles 

Women, pathetic letters from, 
15 ; successful journalists, 
16 ; as " leader " writers ... 

Wood, Mrs. Henry 30, 

World ' 



PAGE 
26 

"3 
140 

140 
114 

140 
140 
140 
140 
140 
114 
122 



118 
109 
141 



Yates, Edmund iv, 47, 56, 139, 141 



SECOND EDITION. 



JOURNALS AND JOURNALISM. 

WITH A GUIDE FOR LITERARY BEGINNERS. 

By JOHN OLDCASTLE, 



" Is a sensible, well-written book, showing a real knowledge of the subject." — Atlunceiim. 

" Discusses with marked ability an interesting subject. The author writes as if his experi- 
ence were wide ; his facts are trustworthy, and his remarks are sensible and unaffected." — 
St. James s Gazette. 

"This pleasant,- gossippy book well deserves all the care which the printers have bestowed 
upon it. Whether his name be real or assumed, the author is evidently qualified to speak 
of the subject, and his advice is as wise as his assertions are truthful."— ^r/w. 

" To young men anxious to enter the career, John Oldcastle's book will be a yery useful 
one. It is full of hints and bits of advice." — G. A. Sala, in Ilbistrated London. News. 

"The print, the toned paper, and the binding will be highly appreciated by persons 
addicted to bibliomania. The whole of the volume is pleasant reading." — Saturday Review. 

" John Oldcastle instructs journalistic aspirants in thfe technicalities of contributing to 
newspapers and magazines, and enables them to know, as folks say, 'all about it.' He 
gives 'tips' to his young disciples, so that they may avoid, even in the notes accompanying 
their MSS., that appearance of greenness which the editorial eye is quick to detect. The 
particulars about the pecuniary rewards of periodical literature are sure to prove attractive 
to aspirants, and the personal details of editorial staffs no less welcome." — Daily Nezvs, 

" The author of this practical little book is evld^nlXy aufait with his subject in all its 
branches."^ — Daily Chronicle. 

" We can remember nothing of the kind so capable, so unaffected, so pleasant to read 
from first to last, as Mr. Oldcastle's little treatise of Journalism and its rewards. Enthusi- 
astic concerning literature as a profession, the writer has no illusion respecting it. He 
writes earnestly, but frankly ; and his utterances are thoroughly worthy of meditation. 
The judiciously written directory of periodicals will be of great service to the holders of 
unnegotiated ' copy.' " — Notes and Queries. 

" Journals and yournalisiH is a work which will catch customers bj' its cover, but when 
they have read the book they will be glad that they were caught." — Sunday Times. 

" Interesting and brightly written, there is what may be called a pleasant literary flavour 
about the book." — Spectator. 



TRICE 3s, 6d., POST FREE FROM THE PUBLISHERS, 

FIELD & TUER, 50, Leadenhall Street, E.C 

TilH: Ll«HAKi 

XJNIVERSITY OF CALIFOKInia 

l,OS ANGELES 



LvXV^RfpVS (SixOEMoni 



Tuer's " Luxurious Bathing," with its 
beautiful copper-plate etchings, quaint 
type, hand-made, rough-edged paper, and 
oblong vellum binding laced with catgut, 
hit the public taste at once, and ran into 
four editions, in as many weeks. 




A Sketch 
\D^'/ Andrew W. Tuer, 

WITH 

Eight Etchings by Tristram Ellis. 



5.-. 



(The Firjl Edition was puhliJJied in folio form with Etchings by 
Mr. Sutton Sharpe, at Three Guineas; Proofs Seven Guineas. 



PROOFS BEFORE LETTERS, Japanese Paper (signed) 20 copies 
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PROOFS, white hand-made paper, 100 copies only printed, los. 6d. 



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opinions of the Press. 



* * * * A book of books for those who love and appreciate Art. * * * It is written 
in an easy, colloquial style, ■> * * jt may be read \Aith profit by those who are scholars 
and thinkers, as well as by those who are, according to the ordinary meaning of the term, 
uneducated. The writer may rob the doctor of half his patients. * * * One of the most 
enjoyable volumes it has ever been our good fortune to possess. — Art Journal. 

There is a touch of genius in the treatment of this sli^g^ht theme by Mr. Tuer. All points 
are so exquisitely dealt with that we marvel whether the author, the artist, the printer, or 
the binder most deserves our appreciation. — The Broad Arrow. 

Its author, Mr. Andrew W. Tuer, modestly terms it " a sketch," but in these days of scurry 
and scamping, of literary lath and plaster, it is only too seldom that we get anything like 
such conscientious and finished work, so exquisite in detail, so admirably consistent 
throughout. — The Bazaar. 

The author displays much practical knowledge in the handling of the details of bathing 
and swimming, and imparts it in a pleasantly clear and concise manner. — The British Architect, 

A BOOK that is luxurious every way ; in binding, typography and literature — The Publishers 
Circular. 

It is to be hoped that Mr. Tuer may see fit to issue an edition of the work which may 
place it within reach of the masses. — Chambers's Journal, 

A CURIOSITY of literature. — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Mr. Tuer's book should encourage luxurious bathing. — London Society. 

People may now " dread their tub as little their bed." — Daily News (leading article). 

Simply sumptuous and sumptuously simple might be the terse description of " Luxurious 
Bathing — Daily Telegraph (special article). 

Likely to become exceedingly popular. — Court Journal. 

A singularly happy specimen of all that the printer and bookbinder can do to make a 
book handsome. — Westminster Review. 



LONDON: FIELD & TUER, ye LeadenliaUe Presse, E.G. 
NEW YORK: SCRIBNER & WELFORD, 743 & 745, Broadway. 



Field & Tuer, ye Leadenhalle Presse, London, E.C. 12,923 



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